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Journal of Emergency Management
January/February 2017, Volume 15
, Number 1


Article
Risk perception and perceived self-efficacy of deaf and hard-of-hearing seniors and young adults in emergencies
Alina Engelman, DrPH, MPH; Susan L. Ivey, MD, MHSA; Winston Tseng, PhD; Linda Neuhauser, DrPH, MPH
January/February 2017; pages 7-15

Abstract
Objectives: The authors explored the factors influencing risk perception and perceived self-efficacy before and during an emergency for deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) seniors and young adults. Methods: The authors collected demographic survey data and conducted four focus groups with 38 Deaf/HH residents of the San Francisco Bay Area; two groups were with young adults (ages 18-35), including one group of college students and one group of young professionals, and two were with older adults (ages 50-90). Results: Significant differences were found between Deaf/HH young adults and seniors in both the sources of self-efficacy and risk perception and their attitudes toward preparedness. All groups demonstrated high resilience. Deaf/HH young professionals expressed more concern about their risk in an emergency than Deaf/HH college students. Alternately, the risk perception of Deaf/HH older adults was often rooted in their past experiences (survival of past emergencies, inaccessibility of communications during drills). Conclusions: Policy implications include the need to dedicate more resources to increasing accessibility and relevance of emergency communications technology for Deaf/HH populations. This could help increase adaptability before, during, and after emergencies among all groups of Deaf/HH people, particularly among young Deaf/HH professionals. Key words: deaf, hard-of-hearing, disability, disasters, accessibility, emergencies, communication, emergency preparedness, risk perception, self-efficacy, qualitative methods, elderly, seniors, young adults DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0309


Article
The use of social media for campus safety
Brittany Haupt, M Ed; Naim Kapucu, PhD; Jeffrey Morgan, MA
January/February 2017; pages 17-28

Abstract
As public safety communication evolved, each disaster or emergency presented unique challenges for emergency managers and others response to disasters. Yet, a foundational focus is the timely dissemination of accurate information to keep communities informed and able to prepare, mitigate, respond, and recover. For the campus community, the increase in bomb threats, active shooter incidents, and geographic-based natural disasters call for the discovery of reliable and cost-effective solutions for emergency information management. Social media is becoming a critical asset in this endeavor. This article examines the evolution of public safety communication, the unique setting of the campus community, and social media's role in campus disaster resilience. In addition, an exploratory study was done to better understand the perception of social media use for public safety within the campus community. The findings provide practical recommendations for campus emergency management professions; however, future research is needed to provide specific, actionable ways to achieve these goals as well as understand how diverse universities utilize a variety of platforms. Key words: public safety communication, social media, campus safety, disaster resilience DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0310


Article
Subway emergency preparedness in Shanghai: A focused group and interview study exploring the perceived experiences of senior citizens and the disabled
Benjamin Ohene Kwapong Baffoe, M Eng; Zheng Shiyuan, PhD
January/February 2017; pages 29-48

Abstract
As Shanghai's population increases and currently being boosted by an influx of foreigners, there has been pressure on the subway system and this has led to a great concern for the aged and disabled people (including foreigners) who use the subway during emergency situations. The present study uses an exploratory research approach including a focus group discussion (FGD) and interviews to uncover the experiences, safety concerns, and challenges that the aged and disabled faces when using the subway. A total of 38 participants were involved in the study, which comprises of three FGDs and interviews conducted in the city of Shanghai. The findings reveal that most aged and disabled subway riders have little or no knowledge about emergency safety measures or safety symbols, the administering of first aid and have language barrier concerns. This study recommends that policy makers and subway operators should get the aged and disabled people involved in developing more educational programs that will help them to better the concept of safety prevention measures and it also suggests holding more emergency drills involving the aged and disabled. Braille language symbols, sign languages on TV screens, specially designed subway maps, low-frequency alarms with flashing lights, and information printed in multiple international languages should also be provided to help foreigners understand the instructions and information in the subways. Additionally, these measures could help all commuters to feel safer when using the subway. Key words: aged, disable people, emergency, evacuation, Subway DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0311


Article
Tsunami evacuation buildings and evacuation planning in Banda Aceh, Indonesia
Hendri Yuzal, MURP; Karl Kim, PhD; Pradip Pant, PhD; Eric Yamashita, MURP
January/February 2017; pages 49-61

Abstract
Indonesia, a country of more than 17,000 islands, is exposed to many hazards. A magnitude 9.1 earthquake struck off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, on December 26, 2004. It triggered a series of tsunami waves that spread across the Indian Ocean causing damage in 11 countries. Banda Aceh, the capital city of Aceh Province, was among the most damaged. More than 31,000 people were killed. At the time, there were no early warning systems nor evacuation buildings that could provide safe refuge for residents. Since then, four tsunami evacuation buildings (TEBs) have been constructed in the Meuraxa subdistrict of Banda Aceh. Based on analysis of evacuation routes and travel times, the capacity of existing TEBs is examined. Existing TEBs would not be able to shelter all of the at-risk population. In this study, additional buildings and locations for TEBs are proposed and residents are assigned to the closest TEBs. While TEBs may be part of a larger system of tsunami mitigation efforts, other strategies and approaches need to be considered. In addition to TEBs, robust detection, warning and alert systems, land use planning, training, exercises, and other preparedness strategies are essential to tsunami risk reduction. Key words: tsunami evacuation buildings, evacuation planning, Indonesia, GIS DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0312


Article
Recent field experiments with commercial satellite imagery direct downlink
Anthony R. Gonzalez, BSc; Samuel H. Amber, PhD
January/February 2017; pages 62-66

Abstract
US Pacific Command's strategy includes assistance to United States government relief agencies and nongovernment organizations during humanitarian aid and disaster relief operations in the Asia-Pacific region. Situational awareness during these operations is enhanced by broad interagency access to unclassified commercial satellite imagery. The Remote Ground Terminal—a mobile satellite downlink ground station—has undergone several technology demonstrations and participated in an overseas deployment exercise focused on a natural disaster scenario. This ground station has received new commercial imagery within 20 minutes, hastening a normally days-long process. The Army Geospatial Center continues to manage technology development and product improvement for the Remote Ground Terminal. Furthermore, this ground station is now on a technology transition path into the Distributed Common Ground System-Army program of record. Key words: humanitarian assistance, disaster relief, military support DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0313

Journal of Emergency Management
March/April 2017, Volume 15
, Number 2


Article
Bioterrorism: A storied past and considerations for preparation of emergency managers
Joseph F. Geiger III, BS
March/April 2017; pages 73-75

Abstract
Editorial


Article
Women's status in disasters: A gap between experts’ desk and affected fields of Iran
Sanaz Sohrabizadeh, PhD
March/April 2017; pages 77-80

Abstract
Although international agreements have achieved significant milestones in the improvement of women's status, experiences from the fields show a discrepancy between words and actions. The aim of this brief communication was to identify the gap between experts’ perceptions and the findings of a large qualitative field survey on women's status in the recent natural disasters of Iran. A total of 10 experts were asked to fill a checklist, which consisted of the concepts extracted from field data. The range of agreement between experts’ perceptions and field data was between 40 and 100 percent. In conclusion, although literature review and international research papers can provide appropriate information for both experts and managers, meeting the various needs of women living in the affected regions requires field-based surveys. Key words: women, experts, disaster, Iran DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0316


Article
Emergency management leadership in 2030: Shaping the next generation meta-leader
Carol L. Cwiak, JD, PhD; Ronald Campbell, CEM, MEP; Matthew G. Cassavechia, MPS, EFO, CEM; Chuck Haynes, MS; Lanita A. Lloyd, MS, CEM; Neil Brockway, BS; George O. Navarini, MA, CEM; Byron E. Piatt, MPA, CEM; Mary Senger, BS
March/April 2017; pages 81-97

Abstract
The complexities, interdependencies, and ambiguity that face next generation emergency management me-ta-leaders in an ever-evolving global community heighten the expectation and need for competencies that far exceed those common in practice today and necessitate the ability to move seamlessly through the dimensions of me-ta-leadership (ie, the person, the situation, and connectivity) while utilizing scientific-based evidence, information, re-sources, processes, and tools. The objective of this effort was to examine the recently developed next generation emergency management competencies through a meta-leadership lens by juxtaposing the competencies and the me-ta-leadership model. This resulted in a new framing of the skills and attributes within the meta-leadership model as they are relevant to each competency. Selected trends, drivers, and challenges were used to provide examples within each competency area of the utility of meta-leadership to next generation emergency management practice. This effort also offers training and education implications for next generation emergency management meta-leaders. The examination of the new framing created in this effort is intended to prompt dialog and research within the emergency management practice and academic communities that furthers the practice and study of emergency management. Key words: emergency management, meta-leadership, training, education, competencies, next generation DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0317


Article
Use of geographical information system data for emergency management points of distribution analysis with POD Locator 2.0
Christopher A. Chung, PhD
March/April 2017; pages 99-105

Abstract
In 2010, the article Location and Analysis of Emergency Management Point of Distributions (PODs) for Hurricane Ike was published in the Journal of Emergency Management. Using a program titled point of distribution locator (POD Locator 1.0), the article reported a 46 percent improvement in positioning PODs over the locations selected by emer-gency managers during Hurricane Ike in 2008. While the program could produce more effective POD locations for a given situation, a major weakness of the program was the difficulty with which population and location data were manu-ally entered into the program for subsequent analysis. This prevented organizations that could have otherwise benefited from the program from successfully utilizing it without additional training. This research effort focuses on the leveraging of readily available geographic information system (GIS) electronic data to address this problem. Analysis of the dif-ference between the previous manual data entry method and the GIS assisted method was statistically significant. Key words: POD, GIS, emergency, location DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0318


Article
Resilience mediates the relationship between social support and post-traumatic stress symptoms in police officers
Erin C. McCanlies, PhD; Ja Kook Gu, MPH; Michael E. Andrew, PhD; Cecil M. Burchfiel, PhD; John M. Violanti, PhD
March/April 2017; pages 107-116

Abstract
Objective: Police officers in the New Orleans geographic area faced a number of challenges following Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Design: This cross-sectional study examined gratitude, resilience, and satisfaction with life as mediators in the association between social support and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 82 male and 31 female police officers. The Gratitude Questionnaire, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List were used to measure gratitude, resilience, satisfaction with life, and social sup-port, respectively. PTSD symptoms were measured using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C). Ordinary least square regression mediation analysis was used to estimate direct and indirect effects among gratitude, resilience, satisfaction with life, social support, and PTSD symptoms. All models were adjusted for age, alcohol, race, and previous military experience. Results: Mean PCL-C symptoms were 29.1 (standard deviation [SD]?=?14.4) for females and 27.9 (SD?=?12.1) for males. There was no direct relationship between social support and PTSD symptoms (c9?=?-0.041; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?-0.199, 0.117) independent of the indirect effect through resilience (effect?=?-0.038; 95%CI?=?-0.099, -0.002). Neither gratitude (effect?=?-0.066; 95% CI?=?-0.203, 0.090) nor satisfaction with life (effect?=?-0.036, 95% CI?=?-0.131, 0.046) contribute to the indirect effect. Conclusions: These results indicate that resilience mediates the relationship between social support and symptoms of PTSD. Targeting social support and resilience in officers may facilitate reduction of PTSD symptoms. Key words: mediation, resilience, PTSD, gratitude, satisfaction with life, police officers DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0319


Article
Are you ready? Crisis leadership in a hyper-VUCA environment (Part 1 of 2)
Khaldoon H. Alkhaldi, MD; Meredith L. Austin, MSPH, MA; Boris A. Cura, MS; Darrell Dantzler, PhD; Leslie Holland, MS; David L. Maples, MBA; Jamie C. Quarrelles, MPA, CEM; Robert K. Weinkle Jr, MS, ACC; Leonard J. Marcus, PhD
March/April 2017; pages 117-132

Abstract
The current hyper-volatile, -uncertain, -complex, and -ambiguous (VUCA) threat environment demands a more co-hesive support structure for crisis leaders who may be faced with crises of increasing magnitude and frequency and, in some instances, multiple crisis events simultaneously. The project team investigates the perceptions of crisis leaders regarding establishing a crisis leader advisor position for crisis leaders to benefit from their experience while prosecut-ing crisis response activities. The team linked hyper-VUCA crises, crisis response frameworks, meta-leadership, crisis leader attributes, and advisor attributes. The overall goal of the project is to increase the ability of the crisis leaders to more effectively and efficiently navigate crisis events resulting in more efficient and effective response and recovery. Three research questions were developed to assess the following: thoughts of integrating a crisis leader advisor posi-tion; development of a crisis leader advisor certification program; and attributes of crisis leader advisors. A qualitative research methodology using a phenomenological approach was employed. Forty-one participants were purposefully selected and administered a short, on-line survey consisting of 11 questions. Data were analyzed using percentage analysis, weighted sums, and inductive thematic analysis. The project team found an overwhelming support for the crisis leader advisor position and the crisis leader advisor certification program. Additionally, experience and trustworthiness ranked among the top sought after attributes of a crisis leader advisor. The team recommendations included (1) implement a crisis leaders advisor guide/framework; (2) create a formal crisis leader advisor position in national incident manage-ment system; (3) implement a crisis leader advisor certification framework; (4) benchmark established advisor pro-grams; and (5) implement a framework to match leaders and advisors. Key words: meta-leadership, VUCA, crisis, crisis leader, advisor, crisis leader advisor, disaster management, inci-dent command system, NIMS DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0320

Journal of Emergency Management
May/June 2017, Volume 15
, Number 3


Article
Are you ready? Crisis leadership in a hyper-VUCA environment--Part 2
Khaldoon H. Alkhaldi, MD; Meredith L. Austin, MSPH, MA; Boris A. Cura, MS; Darrell Dantzler, PhD; Leslie Holland, MS; David L. Maples, MBA; Jamie C. Quarrelles, MPA, CEM; Robert K. Weinkle Jr, MS, ACC; Leonard J. Marcus, PhD
May/June 2017; pages 139-155

Abstract
The current hyper-volatile, -uncertain, -complex, and -ambiguous (VUCA) threat environment demands a more cohesive support structure for crisis leaders who may be faced with crises of increasing magnitude and frequency and, in some instances, multiple crisis events simultaneously. The project team investigates the perceptions of crisis leaders regarding establishing a crisis leader advisor position for crisis leaders to benefit from their experience while prosecuting crisis response activities. The team linked hyper-VUCA crises, crisis response frameworks, meta-leadership, crisis leader attributes, and advisor attributes. The overall goal of the project is to increase the ability of the crisis leaders to more effectively and efficiently navigate crisis events resulting in more efficient and effective response and recovery. Three research questions were developed to assess the following: thoughts of integrating a crisis leader advisor position; development of a crisis leader advisor certification program; and attributes of crisis leader advisors. A qualitative research methodology using a phenomenological approach was employed. Forty-one participants were purposefully selected and administered a short, on-line survey consisting of 11 questions. Data were analyzed using percentage analysis, weighted sums, and inductive thematic analysis. The project team found an overwhelming support for the crisis leader advisor position and the crisis leader advisor certification program. Additionally, experience and trustworthiness ranked among the top sought after attributes of a crisis leader advisor. The team recommendations included (1) implement a crisis leaders advisor guide/framework; (2) create a formal crisis leader advisor position in national incident management system; (3) implement a crisis leader advisor certification framework; (4) benchmark established advisor programs; and (5) implement a framework to match leaders and advisors. Key words: meta-leadership, VUCA, crisis, crisis leader, advisor, crisis leader advisor, disaster management, incident command system, NIMS DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0321


Article
Bridging cultures: Nonprofit, church, and emergency management agency collaboration after the May 2013 Oklahoma tornado outbreak
Haley Murphy, PhD; Jason Pudlo, MA
May/June 2017; pages 157-174

Abstract
Community-based organizations, such as nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and churches, play an important role in helping individuals and communities bounce back after a disaster. The nature of disasters requires organizations across sectors to partner together to provide recovery services; however, collaboration is difficult even in times of stability and requires trust and communication to be built through prior collaborative relationships. These prior relationships rarely exist between the majority of the nonprofit sector, churches, and existing emergency management structures. Furthermore, these organizations often have very different cultures, values, and norms that can further hinder successful postdisaster collaboration. The authors use data collected from interviews with nonprofit and church leaders involved in recovery efforts after a series of devastating storms impacted central Oklahoma in 2013 to understand how well nonprofit and church leaders perceive their organizations collaborated with each other and with government and emergency management agencies in response and recovery efforts. Interview data suggest that NPOs and churches without a primary or secondary mission of disaster response and recovery have a difficult time collaborating with organizations involved in existing emergency management structures. The authors suggest that nonprofits with a primary or secondary purpose in disaster response are a potential bridge between other nonprofits and emergency management agencies. Key words: nonprofit, church, disaster response, Collaboration DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0325


Article
The social construction of disasters in the United States: A historical and cultural phenomenon
Tonya T. Neaves, PhD; T. Aaron Wachhaus, PhD; Grace A. Royer, MPAc
May/June 2017; pages 175-187

Abstract
Introduction: Societal risks from hazards are continually increasing. Each year, disasters cause thousands of deaths and cost billions of dollars. In the first half of 2011, the United States endured countless disasters—winter snowstorms in the Midwest and Northeast; severe tornadic weather in the Mississippi, Alabama, and Missouri; flash flooding in Nashville; flooding along the Mississippi River; an earthquake on the East Coast, wildfires in Texas, and Hurricane Irene. Fundamental disaster planning is regarded as an interdisciplinary approach to develop strategies and instituting policies concerned with phases of emergency management; as such, its needs are predicated on the identification of hazards and assessment of risks. Problem: Even if the probability or intensity of risks to disasters remains fairly constant, population growth, alongside economic and infrastructural development, will unavoidably result in a concomitant increase of places prone to such events. One of the greatest barriers to emergency management efforts is the failure to fully grasp the socially and politically constructed meaning of disasters. Purpose: This article investigates the ways in which language has been used historically in the American lexicon to make sense of disasters in the United States in an effort to improve communal resiliency. Serving as both an idea and experience, the terminology used to convey our/the modern-day concept of disaster is a result of a cultural artifact, ie, a given time and specific place. Methodology: Tools such as Google Ngram Viewer and CASOS AutoMap are used to explore the penetration, duration, and change in disaster terminology among American English literature for more than 200 years, from 1800 to 2008, by quantifying written culture. Findings: The language of disasters is an integral part of disaster response, as talking is the primary way that most people respond to and recover from disasters. The vast majority of people are not affected by any given disaster, and so it is through discussing a disaster that people make sense of it, respond, and react to it, and fit something that is overwhelming and beyond human control into the normal order of life. Key words: social construction, disasters, language, Culture DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0326


Article
The relationship between social capital and potential resilience in individuals
Daniel Hahn, MA, MBA; Tierra L. Willis, MA; A. Ruthie Christie, MA; Samuel R. Mathews, PhD
May/June 2017; pages 189-194

Abstract
Objective: To examine the relationship between social capital and potential resilience at the individual level from the perspective of emergency management. Methods: The authors used an online survey tool to present various scales of measurement related to the variables of social capital and potential resilience. Results: It was predicted that social capital and demographics, such as income, would be positively related to potential resilience. Overall, results indicated that income (ß = 0.33, p < 0.01) and social capital (ß = 0.32, p < 0.01) were both significant predictors of potential resilience. Implications and future directions for research and practices are discussed. Key words: social capital, potential resilience, preparedness, Mitigation DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0327


Article
An oxymoron of long-term care--Sheltering-in-place during an evacuation: A literature review of the best practices of evacuation and sheltering-in-place for long-term care facilities
Megan Baxter, MDEM
May/June 2017; pages 195-201

Abstract
Background: Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are defined as residential facilities that are home to elderly patrons who are no longer able to live independently. These facilities require comprehensive emergency planning to provide the best response to the threat of a disaster for their residents. However, LTCFs are often overlooked in disaster planning, leaving them to work independently to create suitable arrangements in the event of a disaster. This article examines the literature on evacuating and compares it to the literature on sheltering-in-place for LTCFs. Conclusions regarding best practices are also provided. Methods: A literature review and Internet search were completed in July 2016. Information was entered onto a spreadsheet listing the key points of each article, which was reviewed for emerging themes. Results: Out of the 399 acquired articles and grey literature found during the research portion of this article, 30 were deemed pertinent, 22 of which appear in this article. All included articles were peer reviewed. Themes emerging from these articles include the persistent absence of research into the best practices for LTCFs during emergencies and the difficulties of evacuating and sheltering-in-place with frail populations. Conclusion: While there is no one right answer for all scenarios, sheltering-in-place appears to be the default safe option for those in LTCFs—with the assumption that the facility has taken steps toward preparation, such as purchasing generators and securing enough food, water, and medical supplies to sustain the residents, staff, and families of both for 7 days. Additionally, a LTCF needs to devise contingency plans for evacuation if necessary, to be fully prepared for a catastrophic event. Key words: emergency preparedness, sheltering-in-place, shelter-in-place, evacuation, disaster, elderly, geriatric, long-term care center DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0328

Journal of Emergency Management
July/August 2017, Volume 15
, Number 4


Article
Superstorm Sandy: Emergency management staff perceptions of impact and recommendations for future preparedness, New York State
Adam Yanson, MPH; Asante Shipp Hilts, MPH, DrPH; Stephanie Mack, BS; Millicent Eidson, MA, DVM, DACVPM; Trang Nguyen, MD, DrPH; Guthrie Birkhead, MD, MPH
July/August 2017; pages 209-218

Abstract
Objective: This study collected and summarized feedback from staff at the New York State (NYS) Office of Emergency Management (OEM) and three county OEMs within NYS to understand lessons learned from the 2012 Superstorm Sandy. Design: Cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative analysis. Subjects, Participants: One staff person from each identified critical role from the state and county OEMs who were still employed in the roles identified. Interventions: In-person interviews in 2014 followed by an anonymous survey in 2015 examined the response strengths, challenges, and recommendations using federally and study-defined Public Health Preparedness Capabilities. Quantitative analysis of staff survey ratings was used to summarize perceptions of interagency collaboration, communication effectiveness, and differences by staff position. Results: Response rates were 78 percent for interviews (n = 7) and 45 percent for surveys (n = 36). In interviews, "emergency operations coordination" was cited most frequently (48 percent), specifically for successful interagency coordination. "Emergency operations coordination" was also cited most among challenges (45 percent), with emphasis on problems with uniformity of software systems across agencies. Survey responses indicated that "volunteer management" (50 percent) and the "safety and health of responders" (40 percent) were frequently reported as challenges. Additionally, 38 percent of OEM staff reported that situation reports submitted by health departments need improvement. Recommendations from OEM staff included "emergency operations coordination" (36 percent) such as sharing of resources and "training" (16 percent) including hospital evacuation training. Conclusions: Analysis of OEM staff feedback identified specific challenges, and concrete recommendations were made to improve response going forward. Key words: disaster planning, emergency management, emergency preparedness, Superstorm, public health DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0330


Article
Defining a risk-informed framework for whole-of-government lessons learned: A Canadian perspective
Shaye K. Friesen, MA; Shelley Kelsey, PhD; J. A. (Jim) Legere, BA, MDS
July/August 2017; pages 219-231

Abstract
Lessons learned play an important role in emergency management (EM) and organizational agility. Virtually all aspects of EM can derive benefit from a lessons learned program. From major security events to exercises, exploiting and applying lessons learned and “best practices” is critical to organizational resilience and adaptiveness. A robust lessons learned process and methodology provides an evidence base with which to inform decisions, guide plans, strengthen mitigation strategies, and assist in developing tools for operations. The Canadian Safety and Security Program recently supported a project to define a comprehensive framework that would allow public safety and security partners to regularly share event response best practices, and prioritize recommendations originating from after action reviews. This framework consists of several inter-locking elements: a comprehensive literature review/environmental scan of international programs; a survey to collect data from end users and management; the development of a taxonomy for organizing and structuring information; a risk-informed methodology for selecting, prioritizing, and following through on recommendations; and standardized templates and tools for tracking recommendations and ensuring implementation. This article discusses the efforts of the project team, which provided “best practice” advice and analytical support to ensure that a systematic approach to lessons learned was taken by the federal community to improve prevention, preparedness, and response activities. It posits an approach by which one might design a systematic process for information sharing and event response coordination—an approach that will assist federal departments to institutionalize a cross-government lessons learned program. Key words: lessons learned, after action review, framework, continuous improvement, event response, emergency management DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0331


Article
Social capital, neighborhood disorder, and disaster recovery
Lauren Clay, PhD, MPH; Mia Papas, PhD; David Abramson, PhD, MPH; James Kendra, PhD
July/August 2017; pages 233-246

Abstract
Objective: This study examined social institutions as a contextual factor that may influence perceptions of neighborhood physical and social disorder during disaster recovery. Design: The study used descriptive statistics and fit logistic regression models. Setting and Participants: Participants in this study (n = 772) were recruited from temporary housing in Louisiana and Mississippi as part of the Gulf Coast Child and Family Health Study, a longitudinal study of households heavily impacted by Hurricane Katrina. Community data were obtained from the Dun and Bradstreet Million Dollar Database and the American Community Survey. Outcome measure(s): Social disorder was assessed by asking respondents how concerned they are about issues such as being robbed or walking alone at night. Physical disorder was assessed by asking about problems experienced in the last month such as broken or missing windows and presence of mice or rats. Results: Greater income (ß = -0.17, SE = 0.07), housing stability (ß = -0.16, SE = 0.07), social support (ß = -0.09, SE = 0.04), and home ownership (ß = -0.10, SE = 0.05) were associated with lower social disorder and a larger male population at the community level was associated with greater social disorder (ß = 0.00, SE = 0.00). Greater social support (ß = -0.11, SE = 0.04), housing stability (ß = -0.15, SE = 0.06), and higher income (ß = -0.10, SE = 0.07) were associated with lower physical disorder. Conclusions: Longitudinal research is needed to understand the direction of influence between neighborhood factors and to household ability to provide for basic needs postdisaster. The findings also highlight the need for further research on postdisaster male behavior. Key words: social institutions, social capital, disaster recovery, neighborhood disorder, physical disorder, social disorder DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0332


Article
Nursing a disaster
Stephanie B. Turner, EdD, MSN, RN
July/August 2017; pages 247-257

Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the needs of nurses predisaster and postdisaster. Design/Methods: This study involved an exploratory mixed methods approach, with semistructured in-depth interviews followed by a 10-item survey of resilience. Setting: The study took place in the PI's office in Tuscaloosa, AL. Subjects: Ten English speaking nurses from an area hospital who were on duty during the April 2011 tornado. Participant recruitment involved distribution of flyers in break areas and other well-populated areas within the hospital. Interventions: Each interview was audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Interview transcripts were reviewed and analyzed for themes, which were categorized, coded, and thoroughly examined. The survey was administered to the participants at the conclusion of the interview. Main Outcome Measure: Study used an exploratory method; to gain an understanding of the needs of nurses predisaster and postdisaster. Findings: All 10 participants were found to have higher levels of resilience than the general population. Results of the interviews included valid concerns for more disaster planning and education, as well as postdisaster counseling. Conclusions: Organizations have the responsibility to keep the nursing workforce happy and healthy. Because disaster response can be both emotionally and physically damaging, it is imperative to increase disaster training and education to those who have the potential to be involved in a disaster event. Postdisaster counseling is also needed to help nurses deal with the stress that occurs during and after a disaster. Key words: disasters, nursing care, disaster management DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0333


Article
Lessons learned from the total evacuation of a hospital after the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake
Youichi Yanagawa, MD, PhD; Hisayoshi Kondo, MD, PhD; Takashi Okawa, MD, PhD; Fumio Ochi, MD, PhD
July/August 2017; pages 259-263

Abstract
Background: The 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes were a series of earthquakes that included a foreshock earthquake (magnitude 6.2) on April 14 and a main shock (magnitude 7.0) on April 16, 2016. A number of hospitals in Kumamoto were severely damaged by the two major earthquakes and required total evacuation. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed the activity data of the Disaster Medical Assistance Teams using the Emergency Medical Information System records to investigate the cases in which the total evacuation of a hospital was attempted following the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake. Results: Total evacuation was attempted at 17 hospitals. The evacuation of one of these hospitals was canceled. Most of the hospital buildings were more than 20 years old. The danger of collapse was the most frequent reason for evacuation. Various transportation methods were employed, some of which involved the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force; no preventable deaths occurred during transportation. Conclusions: The hospitals must now be renovated to improve their earthquake resistance. The coordinated and combined use of military and civilian resources is beneficial and can significantly reduce human suffering in large-scale disasters. Key words: civilian-military cooperation, Kumamoto, earthquake DOI:10.5055/jem.2017.0334