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Journal of Emergency Management
January/February 2016, Volume 14
, Number 1


Article
Hurricane Sandy's impact on the predisaster homeless and homeless shelter services in New Jersey
Marc R. Settembrino, PhD
January/February 2016; pages 7-16

Abstract
Presently, there is little research on how people experiencing homelessness prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Existing emergency management literature does not provide an understanding of how disasters affect homeless shelter services. The present study seeks to fill these gaps by examining how Hurricane Sandy impacted homeless shelters and their guests in New Jersey. Presenting findings from ethnographic research in Atlantic City and Hoboken, this study identifies several areas in which homeless shelters and their guests may be able to assist in emergency response and disaster recovery such as preparing meals for victims, sorting and processing donated items, and assisting victims in filing for emergency assistance. Key words: homeless, Hurricane Sandy, emergency response DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0268


Article
A proposed emergency management program for acute care facilities in response to a highly virulent infectious disease
Bruno Petinaux, MD; Brandy Ferguson, MD; Milena Walker, MD; Yeo-Jin Lee, RN, MPH, CIC; Gary Little, MD; David Parenti, MD; Gary Simon, MD, PhD
January/February 2016; pages 17-29

Abstract
To address the organizational complexities associated with a highly virulent infectious disease (HVID) hazard, such as Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), an acute care facility should institute an emergency management program rooted in the fundamentals of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. This program must address all known facets of the care of a patient with HVID, from unannounced arrival to discharge. The implementation of such a program not only serves to mitigate the risks from an unrecognized exposure but also serves to prepare the organization and its staff to provide for a safe response, and ensure a full recovery. Much of this program is based on education, training, and infection control measures along with resourcing for appropriate personal protective equipment which is instrumental in ensuring an organized and safe response of the acute care facility in the service to the community. This emergency management program approach can serve as a model in the care of not only current HVIDs such as EVD but also future presentations in our healthcare setting. Key words: Ebola Virus Disease, emergency management, personal protective equipment, infectious disease, infection prevention and control, disaster planning DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0269


Article
The National Capital Region closed circuit television video interoperability project
John Contestabile, MBA; David Patrone, MS; Steven Babin, MSE, MD, PhD
January/February 2016; pages 31-41

Abstract
Objective: The National Capital Region (NCR) includes many government jurisdictions and agencies using different closed circuit TV (CCTV) cameras and video management software. Because these agencies often must work together to respond to emergencies and events, a means of providing interoperability for CCTV video is critically needed. Design: Video data from different CCTV systems that are not inherently interoperable is represented in the "data layer." An "integration layer" ingests the data layer source video and normalizes the different video formats. It then aggregates and distributes this video to a "presentation layer" where it can be viewed by almost any application used by other agencies and without any proprietary software. A native mobile video viewing application is also developed that uses the presentation layer to provide video to different kinds of smartphones. Setting: The NCR includes Washington, DC, and surrounding counties in Maryland and Virginia. Results: The video sharing architecture allows one agency to see another agency's video in their native viewing application without the need to purchase new CCTV software or systems. A native smartphone application was also developed to enable them to share video via mobile devices even when they use different video management systems. Conclusions: A video sharing architecture has been developed for the NCR that creates an interoperable environment for sharing CCTV video in an efficient and cost effective manner. In addition, it provides the desired capability of sharing video via a native mobile application. Key words: closed circuit television, regional video sharing, interoperability, mobile applications DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0270


Article
Factors influencing mine rescue team behaviors
Jacqueline H. Jansky, MS, MA, CPG; K. M. Kowalski-Trakofler, PhD; M. J. Brnich, BS, CMSP; C. Vaught, PhD
January/February 2016; pages 43-54

Abstract
A focus group study of the first moments in an underground mine emergency response was conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Office for Mine Safety and Health Research. Participants in the study included mine rescue team members, team trainers, mine officials, state mining personnel, and individual mine managers. A subset of the data consists of responses from participants with mine rescue backgrounds. These responses were noticeably different from those given by on-site emergency personnel who were at the mine and involved with decisions made during the first moments of an event. As a result, mine rescue team behavior data were separated in the analysis and are reported in this article. By considering the responses from mine rescue team members and trainers, it was possible to sort the data and identify seven key areas of importance to them. On the basis of the responses from the focus group participants with a mine rescue background, the authors concluded that accurate and complete information and a unity of purpose among all command center personnel are two of the key conditions needed for an effective mine rescue operation. Key words: mining, underground coal mining, mine rescue, emergency response DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0271


Article
A course in disaster mitigation
Sarah J. Bundy, PhD
January/February 2016; pages 55-69

Abstract
While endeavors are underway within the emergency management discipline to develop a unique body of foundational knowledge, widespread acknowledgement and agreement within the emergency management scholarly community of the existence of theoretical foundations and the consistent incorporation of these elements into emergency management research and teaching are still lacking. This article offers an outline of a US-based undergraduate course in mitigation theory and practice that is based on a synthesis of the academic literature related to disaster mitigation as a means to advance the discourse on foundational knowledge and curriculum development. The course outline proposes a set of concepts, theories, propositions, and empirical data that would arguably be fundamental for students in gaining a comprehensive understanding of mitigation in the United States and suggests how that information can be organized and presented in a meaningful way. Key words: disaster mitigation, emergency management education, curriculum development DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0272


Article
Continuity of operations planning in college athletic programs: The case for incorporating Federal Emergency Management Guidelines
Stacey A. Hall, PhD, MBA; Brandon L. Allen, PhD; Dennis Phillips, PhD
January/February 2016; pages 71-77

Abstract
College athletic departments have a responsibility to provide a safe environment for student-athletes; however, most colleges do not have a crisis management plan that includes procedures for displaced student-athletes or alternate facilities to perform athletic events. Continuity of operations planning ensures athletic programs are equipped to maintain essential functions during, or shortly after, a disruption of operations due to possible hazards. Previous studies have identified a lack of emergency preparedness and continuity planning in college athletic departments. The purpose of this article is to illustrate in detail one approach to disaster planning for college athletic departments, namely the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) continuity of operations framework. By adhering to FEMA guidelines and promoting a best practices model, athletic programs can effectively plan to address potential hazards, as well as protect the organization's brand, image, and financial sustainability after a crisis event. Key words: continuity of operations planning, college athletics, emergency preparedness DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0273


Article
Reduction in unavailable-for-response episodes in a private emergency medical services agency
Brian L. Risavi, DO, MS, FACEP, FAAEM; Saad Mahmood, DO; Kevin Andryc, DO; John Libonati, EMT-P; Mark A. Terrell, EdD
January/February 2016; pages 79-84

Abstract
Objective: Increased demand for emergency medical services (EMS), financial constraints, emergency department overcrowding, EMS crews kept in hospital, all result in ambulance unavailability. This study seeks to identify daily temporal patterns for unavailable-for-response episodes, impact of increasing staffing during peak periods, and evaluating the extent of reduction in unavailable-for-response episodes due to temporally precise increases in staffing during critical time periods and the resulting cost/ benefit analysis. Design: The authors evaluated all EMS responses during a 7-month time period and recorded all unavailable-for-response episodes. This identified clusters of unavailable-for-response episodes for which incremental staffing changes were implemented. Internal audit of cost/revenues was recorded. Setting: Midsized private EMS agency in Northwest Pennsylvania. Subjects/participants: EMS Responders/Agency calls. Interventions: Temporally precise increases in staffing during critical time periods/unavailable-for-response episodes. Main outcome measure(s): Reduction in unavailable-for-response episodes, cost effectiveness. Results: Evaluating 23,833 EMS responses that occurred during the study period, staffing changes resulted in a 93 percent average reduction and 100 percent maximum reduction in unavailable-for-response episodes and were cost effective, based on evaluation of cost versus revenue, in this EMS agency. Conclusions: Identification of opportunities for system staffing improvement in a midsized EMS agency demonstrated feasibility and usability of mapping temporal patterns of unavailable-for-response episodes to substantially reduce the number of unavailable-for-response episodes and was cost effective. Key words: EMS, quality improvement, response DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0274

Journal of Emergency Management
March/April 2016, Volume 14
, Number 2


Article
What tourist business managers must learn from disaster research
Thomas E. Drabek, PhD
March/April 2016; pages 91-99

Abstract
Death and social disruption caused by disasters of varying forms will continue to increase in the future. So too will the impacts on tourism, now one of the fastest growing and largest sectors of the worldwide economy. Tourist business managers must implement evidence-based preparedness activities to enhance the survival potential and future profitability of their firms. Drawing upon recent research studies of the tourist industry during times of crisis and the broad social science knowledge base regarding human responses to disaster, seven key lessons are described. Emergency managers must facilitate the incorporation of these lessons into the culture of tourist business managers. Key words: emergency manager-tourism interface, tourist business disaster preparedness, disaster impacts on tourist industry, tourist business manager education DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0276


Article
Emergency Preparedness with People Who Sign: Toward the whole community approach
Jody H. Cripps, PhD; Sheryl B. Cooper, PhD; Elizabeth N. Austin, PhD, MA, RN, CEN
March/April 2016; pages 101-111

Abstract
The concept of the “whole community” involves including everyone in the community in preparing for emergencies, including members of often-overlooked groups. Deaf people who sign are one example of this type of group. An innovative model based on the whole community approach, Emergency Preparedness with People Who Sign (EPPS), is introduced in this article. This model focuses on members of the deaf community directly training first responders using a variety of techniques for effective communication and cultural understanding to achieve safety for all. This model was developed and field tested by a university Deaf Studies program through student service-learning activities and faculty involvement including on-site role-playing. Through the reciprocal awareness training for both professionals and community members, deaf individuals become actively empowered to participate in developing culturally and linguistically sensitive public safety services. Response to the concurrent training of first responders and deaf community members has been positive, and it is hoped that this model can be replicated with deaf people and first responders in other locations, as well as with other often-overlooked groups. Key words: emergency preparedness, deaf people, service learning, first responder, sign language DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0277


Article
Social media best practices in emergency management
Ashley Siskey, MS; Tanveer Islam, PhD, CFM
March/April 2016; pages 113-125

Abstract
Social media platforms have become popular as means of communications in emergency management. Many people use social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter on a daily basis including during disaster events. Emergency management agencies (EMAs) need to recognize the value of not only having a presence on social media but also actively engaging stakeholders and the public on these sites. However, identifying best practices for the use of social media in emergency management is still in its infancy. The objective of this article is to begin to create or further define best practices for emergency managers to use social media sites particularly Facebook and Twitter in four key areas: 1) implementation, 2) education, 3) collaboration, and 4) communication. A list of recommendations of best practices is formulated for each key area and results from a nationwide survey on the use of social media by county EMAs are discussed in this article. Key words: social media, best practice, emergency management, Facebook, Twitter, EMA DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0278


Article
Disaster relief volunteerism: Evaluating cities’ planning for the usage and management of spontaneous volunteers
Jason David Rivera, PhD; Zachary David Wood, MA
March/April 2016; pages 127-138

Abstract
This exploratory study sought to observe the perceptions, usage, and planned management of spontaneous volunteers in disaster planning and response within various urban environments. The authors discuss the perceptions of spontaneous volunteerism in America, specifically the challenges of using spontaneous volunteers in disaster response activities. A content analysis of the 50 largest cities in the US Office of Emergency Management Web sites and a survey instrument administered to emergency managers in these 50 cities were used to explore various questions raised throughout the discussion of the literature. The authors found significant discrepancies between what is stated in the disaster plans of cities and what emergency managers claim is covered in their plans. Of the managers surveyed, only a handful mention spontaneous volunteers in their plans at all, and even fewer cities discuss them extensively. In addition, stated perceptions of the value of spontaneous volunteers may impact both how we plan for them and the value they provide. Key words: spontaneous volunteers, disaster relief, perceptions of volunteers, disaster response DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0279


Article
Examining social, physical, and environmental dimensions of tornado vulnerability in Texas
Laura Siebeneck, PhD
March/April 2016; pages 139-151

Abstract
Objective: To develop a vulnerability model that captures the social, physical, and environmental dimensions of tornado vulnerability of Texas counties. Design: Guided by previous research and methodologies proposed in the hazards and emergency management literature, a principle components analysis is used to create a tornado vulnerability index. Data were gathered from open source information available through the US Census Bureau, American Community Surveys, and the Texas Natural Resources Information System. Setting: Texas counties. Results: The results of the model yielded three indices that highlight geographic variability of social vulnerability, built environment vulnerability, and tornado hazard throughout Texas. Further analyses suggest that counties with the highest tornado vulnerability include those with high population densities and high tornado risk. Conclusions: This article demonstrates one method for assessing statewide tornado vulnerability and presents how the results of this type of analysis can be applied by emergency managers towards the reduction of tornado vulnerability in their communities. Key words: tornado, Texas, vulnerability, mitigation, Preparedness DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0280


Article
Major accident prevention through applying safety knowledge management approach
Omid Kalatpour, MSc, PhD
March/April 2016; pages 153-160

Abstract
Objective: Many scattered resources of knowledge are available to use for chemical accident prevention purposes. The common approach to management process safety, including using databases and referring to the available knowledge has some drawbacks. The main goal of this article was to devise a new emerged knowledge base (KB) for the chemical accident prevention domain. Design: The scattered sources of safety knowledge were identified and scanned. Then, the collected knowledge was formalized through a computerized program. The Protégé software was used to formalize and represent the stored safety knowledge. Results: The domain knowledge retrieved as well as data and information. This optimized approach improved safety and health knowledge management (KM) process and resolved some typical problems in the KM process. Conclusion: Upgrading the traditional resources of safety databases into the KBs can improve the interaction between the users and knowledge repository. Key words: ontology, process accident, chemical accident prevention, knowledge base DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0281

Journal of Emergency Management
May/June 2016, Volume 14
, Number 3


Article
Wireless communication and spectrum sharing for public safety in the United States
Naim Kapucu, PhD; Brittany Haupt, Med; Murat Yuksel, PhD
May/June 2016; pages 167-176

Abstract
With the vast number of fragmented, independent public safety wireless communication systems, the United States is encountering major challenges with enhancing interoperability and effectively managing costs while sharing limited availability of critical spectrum. The traditional hierarchical approach of emergency management does not always allow for needed flexibility and is not a mandate. A national system would reduce equipment needs, increase effectiveness, and enrich quality and coordination of response; however, it is dependent on integrating the commercial market. This article discusses components of an ideal national wireless public safety system consists along with key policies in regulating wireless communication and spectrum sharing for public safety and challenges for implementation. Key words: wireless communication, spectrum sharing, interoperability, emergency management DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0283


Article
Systems fragility: The sociology of chaos
Lori R. Hodges, MA
May/June 2016; pages 177-187

Abstract
This article examines the concept of community fragility in emergency management from a systems perspective. Using literature that addresses fragility in four areas of complex systems, including ecosystems, social systems, sociotechnical systems, and complex adaptive systems, a theoretical framework focused on the emergency management field is created. These findings illustrate how community fragility factors can be used in the emergency management field to not only improve overall outcomes after disaster but also build less fragile systems and communities in preparation for future disasters. Key words: complexity, fragility, systems theory, emergency management, social capital, resilience, vulnerability DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0284


Article
Rethinking our approach to gender and disasters: Needs, responsibilities, and solutions
Samantha Montano, MS; Amanda Savitt, MS
May/June 2016; pages 189-199

Abstract
Objective: To explore how the existing literature has discussed the vulnerability and needs of women in a disaster context. It will consider the literature's suggestions of how to minimize vulnerability and address the needs of women, including who involved in emergency management should be responsible for such efforts. Design: Empirical journal articles and book chapters from disaster literature were collected that focused on "women" or "gender," and their results and recommendations were analyzed. Results: This review found existing empirical research on women during disasters focuses on their vulnerabilities more than their needs. Second, when researchers do suggest solutions, they tend not to be comprehensive or supported by empirical evidence. Finally, it is not clear from existing research who is responsible for addressing these needs and implementing solutions. Conclusions: Future research should study the intersection of gender and disasters in terms of needs and solutions including who is responsible for implementing solutions. Key words: gender, women, emergency management, Vulnerability DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0285


Article
Evolution of an experiential learning partnership in emergency management higher education
Claire Connolly Knox, PhD; Alan S. Harris, CEM, FPEM
May/June 2016; pages 201-211

Abstract
Experiential learning allows students to step outside the classroom and into a community setting to integrate theory with practice, while allowing the community partner to reach goals or address needs within their organization. Emergency Management and Homeland Security scholars recognize the importance, and support the increased implementation, of this pedagogical method in the higher education curriculum. Yet challenges to successful implementation exist including limited resources and time. This longitudinal study extends the literature by detailing the evolution of a partnership between a university and office of emergency management in which a functional exercise is strategically integrated into an undergraduate course. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of lessons learned from throughout the multiyear process. Key words: emergency management higher education, community partnership, experiential learning, functional exercise DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0286


Article
The psychological impact of mass casualty incidents on first responders: A systematic review
Paula M. Morgan, BA, MPS
May/June 2016; pages 213-226

Abstract
First responders are exposed to various types of disasters throughout their career. Because of their roles, they are often regarded as stronger people than individuals from other occupations. A systematic review of literature was conducted to determine if distinct characteristics exist that make first responders more susceptible to psychological trauma. Five categories of traits were found to put first responders at risk for psychological problems: personal, predisposing, peridisposing, postdisposing, and protective. To counteract the impact of psychological trauma, first responders need additional preincident psychological and resiliency training. Preparedness and awareness will help combat psychological impact from disasters and compassion fatigue. Key words: homeland security, mass casualty incidents, emergency services, public health preparedness, PTSD DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0287

Journal of Emergency Management
July/August 2016, Volume 14
, Number 4


Article
Building resilient communities: A facilitated discussion
Ron Bowles, PhD; Gregory S. Anderson, PhD; Colleen Vaughan, MEd
July/August 2016; pages 233-243

Abstract
The Building Resilient Communities Workshop was hosted and organized by the Justice Institute of British Columbia, with the support of Emergency Management British Columbia and the Canadian Safety and Security Program, Defence Research and Development Canada, Centre for Security Science. Thirty-four participants from multiple levels of government, senior practitioners, policy makers, academia, community members, and a variety of agencies disseminated knowledge and developed concrete strategies and priority actions areas for supporting ongoing and emerging initiatives in community and disaster resilience planning. Identified strategies included development of an integrated national strategy and finding ongoing sustainability funding; increasing community engagement through information sharing, giving context-specific examples of anticipated outcomes, and demonstrating return on investment; as well as the need to engage and support local champions and embedding disaster resilience within other processes. A key message was that communities should be encouraged to use ANY tool or process, rather than struggling to find the perfect tool. Any engagement with disaster resilience planning increases community resilience. Key words: disaster preparedness, resilience, community DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0289


Article
The application of supply chain management principles to emergency management logistics: An empirical study
Matthew R. Peterson, MBA, CSCP, SCOR-P; Richard R. Young, PhD, FCILT; Gary A. Gordon, MSCE, MBA, PE
July/August 2016; pages 245-258

Abstract
Key elements of supply chain theory remain relevant to emergency management (EM) logistics activities. The Supply Chain Operations Reference model can also serve as a useful template for the planning, organizing, and execution of EM logistics. Through a series of case studies (developed through intensive survey of organizations and individuals responsible for EM), the authors identified the extent supply chain theory is being adopted and whether the theory was useful for emergency logistics managers. The authors found several drivers that influence the likelihood of an organization to implement elements of supply chain management: the frequency of events, organizational resources, population density, range of events, and severity of the disaster or emergency. Key words: emergency management logistics, supply chain management, emergency management planning DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0290


Article
Emergency management communication on university Web sites: A 7-year study
Kelly L. Brown, PhD; Gina Holguin, BS; Tara Halbrook Scott, BS
July/August 2016; pages 259-268

Abstract
In the last several years, disasters—both manmade and natural—have taken their toll on college campuses. Extant research shows that college campuses have greatly increased their emergency management efforts. One area in which colleges and universities have made strides is emergency management communication. There has been some research examining emergency management communication across campuses, but there is still much to learn. This research fills a gap in this area by investigating the use of university Web sites to disseminate emergency management information to the university stakeholders. Data were gathered in 2007 and 2014 from the Web sites of public, 4-year universities in Indiana. The results show that universities are using the Internet to communicate emergency management information to their stakeholders. Among the most common categories of information available on the Web sites are links to other agencies, university response information, and threat levels. Implications for future research are discussed. Key words: emergency management, colleges and universities, emergency communication DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0291


Article
The lasting mental health effects of Hurricane Sandy on residents of the Rockaways
Rebecca M. Schwartz, PhD; Patricia Rothenberg, BA; Samantha M. Kerath, MS; Bian Liu, PhD; Emanuela Taioli, MD, PhD
July/August 2016; pages 269-279

Abstract
Objective: To examine the impact of Hurricane Sandy on the mental health and substance use of residents of the Rockaways, which is a lower income, ethnically diverse region of NYC that was devastated by the hurricane. Design: Prospective, cross sectional. Setting: Rockaways, Queens, NYC community residents. Participants: From October 2013 to April 2015, 407 adult residents of the Rockaways completed self-report, validated measures of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress symptoms as well as indicators of substance use (alcohol, illicit substance, and tobacco use) and exposure to Hurricane Sandy. Main Outcome Measures: Depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, alcohol use, illicit substance use, and tobacco use. Results: Differences in exposure scores on outcomes were compared using Wilcoxon tests. Associations between hurricane exposure (categorized into “personal” and “property” exposure) and outcomes were investigated using logistic regression, adjusting for demographic covariates, mental health history, and time since hurricane. The study participants were predominately female (57.5 percent) and black (63.9 percent) and average age was 44.7 years. Multivariable results showed that property exposure scores were positively associated with increased risks of mental health difficulties across all three mental health symptom outcomes, but not substance use. Increased personal and total exposures were also significantly associated with increased Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms. Substance use variables were not significantly associated with any of the hurricane exposure indicators. Conclusions: The present study quantifies the lasting impact that Hurricane Sandy has had on the mental health of Rockaways residents indicating the need for continued recovery efforts and increased mental health service provision in this vulnerable region. Key words: Rockaways, mental health, substance use, Hurricane Sandy DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0292


Article
Disaster behavioral health capacity: Findings from a multistate preparedness assessment
Megan Peck, MPH; Tai Mendenhall, PhD; Louise Stenberg, MPH; Nancy Carlson, BS; Debra K. Olson, DNP
July/August 2016; pages 281-287

Abstract
Purpose: To identify gaps in disaster behavioral health, the Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (PERL) at the University of Minnesota's School of Public Health supported the development and implementation of a multistate disaster behavioral health preparedness assessment. Information was gathered regarding worker knowledge of current disaster behavioral health capacity at the state and local level, and perceived disaster behavioral health training needs and preferences. Methods: Between May and July 2015, 143 participants completed a 31-item uniform questionnaire over the telephone by a trained interviewer. Trained interviewers were given uniform instructions on administering the questionnaire. Participants included county- and city-level public health leaders and directors from Minnesota, Wisconsin, and North Dakota. Findings: Findings demonstrate that across the three states there is a need for improved disaster behavioral health training and response plans for before, during, and after public health emergencies. This study identified perceived gaps in plans and procedures for meeting the disaster behavioral health needs of different at-risk populations, including children, youth, and those with mental illness. There was consistent agreement among participants about the lack of behavioral health coordination between agencies during emergency events. Value: Findings can be used to inform policy and the development of trainings for those involved in disaster behavioral health. Effectively attending to interagency coordination and mutual aid agreements, planning for effective response and care for vulnerable populations, and targeted training will contribute to a more successful public health response to emergency events. Keywords: disaster behavioral health, disasters, aftercare, emergency response, public health preparedness DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0293


Article
Workload differences across command levels and emergency response organizations during a major joint training exercise
Erik G. Prytz, PhD; Jonas Rybing, MSc; Carl-Oscar Jonson, PhD
July/August 2016; pages 289-297

Abstract
Objective: This study reports on an initial test using a validated workload measurement method, the NASA Task Load Index (TLX), as an indicator of joint emergency exercise effectiveness. Prior research on emergency exercises indicates that exercises must be challenging, ie, result in high workload, to be effective. However, this is often problematic with some participants being underloaded and some overloaded. The NASA TLX was used to test for differences in workload between commanders and subordinates and among three different emergency response organizations during a joint emergency exercise. Design: Questionnaire-based evaluation with professional emergency responders. Setting: The study was performed in conjunction with a large-scale interorganizational joint emergency exercise in Sweden. Participants: A total of 20 participants from the rescue services, 12 from the emergency medical services, and 12 from the police participated in the study (N = 44). Ten participants had a command-level role during the exercise and the remaining 34 were subordinates. Main Outcome Measure(s): The main outcome measures were the workload subscales of the NASA TLX: mental demands, physical demands, temporal demands, performance, effort, and frustration. Results: The results showed that the organizations experienced different levels of workload, that the commanders experienced a higher workload than the subordinates, and that two out of three organizations fell below the twenty-fifth percentile of average workload scores compiled from 237 prior studies. Conclusions: The results support the notion that the NASA TLX could be a useful complementary tool to evaluate exercise designs and outcomes. This should be further explored and verified in additional studies. Key words: exercise, live simulation, workload, training, NASA TLX DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0294

Journal of Emergency Management
September/October 2016, Volume 14
, Number 5


Article
Colleges and universities sticking to their guns?
Jesse Perez Mendez, PhD, JD; Lou Sabina, PhD; Jon Loffi, EdD
September/October 2016; pages 309-325

Abstract
Firearm possession on college and university campuses remains a volatile public policy issue among policymakers, legislators, scholars, and administrators. Given the American federal governmental structure, many states have developed legislative approaches to “carry on campus” policies throughout the years that align with federal law. This study explores the diversity of state approaches and nuances of “carry on campus” throughout recent years and current state legislation under consideration. The implications of “carry on campus” legislation vary on college campuses, depending on applicable state law; however, some general dynamics apply to all. Key words: firearms, higher education, campus DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0296


Article
Emergency preparedness of veterans and nonveterans
Joseph F. Geiger III, BS
September/October 2016; pages 327-333

Abstract
This study examined statistical differences in levels of disaster preparedness between former members of the US Armed Forces (veterans) and civilians (nonveterans). It was hypothesized that veterans would exhibit a higher degree of disaster preparedness as compared to their nonveteran counterparts as a consequence of their training and life experience. Furthermore, if this were proven to be valid, the finding would identify this cohort as an ideal target audience for emergency and disaster preparedness education efforts. A four-page survey consisting principally of closed-ended questions about emergency preparedness was written to measure these differences. Most of the questions required respondents to rank their answers according to a five-step Likert Scale. The survey could be completed either in hard copy or online from September 2014 to January 2015. Ultimately, 113 surveys were returned for evaluation. Of those respondents, 62 were veterans and 51 were nonveterans. The responses were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance tests for statistical significance using the 95 percent confidence standard for each tested value. The results support that veterans are more prepared for domestic emergencies than nonveterans. In addition, veterans were more willing to provide leadership and direction to others in an effort to assist emergency managers in responding to domestic disasters. It is for these reasons that emergency managers should consider targeting veterans for disaster preparedness training to help ensure effective and efficient responses to emergencies. Key words: disasters, veterans, preparedness DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0297


Article
Emergency notifications: Twentieth century or twenty-first?
Kevin Curran, MBA
September/October 2016; pages 335-347

Abstract
This article explores one area of the decision-making process for emergency managers: when and how to issue a public notification. For certain emergencies, a plan is in place. In other scenarios, a notification decision must be made that could be the difference between life and death. Perhaps the best known of these options is the mass media Emergency Alert System. However, newer options may provide better ways to inform a potentially affected population. Through interviews and literature reviews, this article will explore the choices available and the need for a coherent decision to be made in a difficult environment. Key words: Emergency Alert System, Wireless Emergency Alerts, mass notification, sirens, public Notification DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0298


Article
Place attachment and disasters: Knowns and unknowns
Mehdi Jamali, MS; Ali Nejat, PhD
September/October 2016; pages 349-364

Abstract
When considering the factors important for disaster recovery, one must consider the attachment individuals have toward their living area. This article reviews and synthesizes the current literature on the determinants of place attachment in the context of postdisaster recovery. Although the majority of the reviewed articles focused on disaster recovery, there were some which had a broader scope and were included due to their importance. This research categorizes the determinants of place attachment into four categories: demographic, socioeconomic, spatial, and psychosocial. Age, ethnicity, and religion were grouped under the category of demographics. Job status, education, and property ownership were categorized under the socioeconomic category. Attachment to home, neighborhood, and city, together with attachment to rural and urban areas, were grouped under the spatial category. Finally, mental health status and community attachment were classified under the psychosocial heading. Based on the outcome of the aforementioned synthesis, this article develops a conceptual framework to guide future research. Key words: place attachment, postdisaster recovery, location bonding DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0299


Article
Using the Manchester triage system for refusing nonurgent patients in the emergency department: A 30-day outcome study
Roger Daglius Dias, MD, MBA, PhD; Izabel Cristina Rios, MD, PhD; Carlos Luis Benites Canhada, MSc; Maria Dolores Galinanes Otero Fernandes, BSW; Leila Suemi Harima Letaif, MD, MBA; Eloisa Bonfá, MD, PhD; Maria Beatriz Moliterno Perondi, MD, MBA
September/October 2016; pages 365-369

Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the long-term outcomes and satisfaction of nonurgent patients who seek care in the emergency department (ED) and are diverted to primary health services (PHS). Methods: Data were collected from 264 nonurgent patients diverted from the ED of a tertiary public university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. The nonurgent patient definition was performed by Manchester triage system version II (MTS-II) associated to medical interview in the triage service. Satisfaction levels were evaluated by telephone interviews. The outcomes were assessed within 30 days after the ED visit. Results: Based on the MTS-II, 56.4 percent of the diverted patients were classified as green, 34.3 percent as blue, and 9.3 percent as white. Only one patient required a hospital admission and no deaths were registered within 30 days after ED diversion. After diversion, the majority of patients searched for PHS (62.7 percent), 14.4 percent sought out other EDs, and 22.9 percent did not seek out any other health services. Regarding patient satisfaction, 61.9 percent evaluated the triage team as fair, good, or very good. Conclusions: Our study suggests that diverting nonurgent patients from the ED to PHS may be carried out in a hierarchic system like the Brazilian public healthcare system. The MTS-II can be a useful triage system to support physician in the diverting process. In addition, patient satisfaction with the refusing was reasonable. Future studies should be designed to evaluate patient safety outcomes in a larger sample and in different healthcare systems. Key words: nonurgent patients, emergency department overcrowding, triage system DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0300

Journal of Emergency Management
November/December 2016, Volume 14
, Number 6


Article
Extraction of actionable information from crowdsourced disaster data
Rungsun Kiatpanont, MS; Uthai Tanlamai, PhD; Prabhas Chongstitvatana, PhD
November/December 2016; pages 377-390

Abstract
Natural disasters cause enormous damage to countries all over the world. To deal with these common problems, different activities are required for disaster management at each phase of the crisis. There are three groups of activities as follows: (1) make sense of the situation and determine how best to deal with it, (2) deploy the necessary resources, and (3) harmonize as many parties as possible, using the most effective communication channels. Current technological improvements and developments now enable people to act as real-time information sources. As a result, inundation with crowdsourced data poses a real challenge for a disaster manager. The problem is how to extract the valuable information from a gigantic data pool in the shortest possible time so that the information is still useful and actionable. This research proposed an actionable-data-extraction process to deal with the challenge. Twitter was selected as a test case because messages posted on Twitter are publicly available. Hashtag, an easy and very efficient technique, was also used to differentiate information. A quantitative approach to extract useful information from the tweets was supported and verified by interviews with disaster managers from many leading organizations in Thailand to understand their missions. The information classifications extracted from the collected tweets were first performed manually, and then the tweets were used to train a machine learning algorithm to classify future tweets. One particularly useful, significant, and primary section was the request for help category. The support vector machine algorithm was used to validate the results from the extraction process of 13,696 sample tweets, with over 74 percent accuracy. The results confirmed that the machine learning technique could significantly and practically assist with disaster management by dealing with crowdsourced data. Key words: disaster management, crowdsourced data, actionable information extraction, machine learning, support vector machine DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0302


Article
Using a call center to coordinate Zika virus testing—New York City, 2016
Jasmine Jacobs-Wingo, MPH; Ifeoma Ezeoke, MPH; Alhaji Saffa, MPH; Anna Tate, MPH; David Lee, MPH, MBA; Kimberly Johnson, MS; Katherine Whittemore, MPH; Alex Illescas, MPH; Austin Collins; Maytal Rand, MPH; Jennifer L. Rakeman, PhD; Jay K. Varma, MD; Neil M. Vora, MD
November/December 2016; pages 391-395

Abstract
Background: After local testing criteria for Zika virus expanded to include asymptomatic pregnant women who traveled to areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) experienced a surge in test requests and subsequent testing delays due to factors such as incorrectly completed laboratory requisition forms. The authors describe how DOHMH addressed these issues by establishing the Zika Testing Call Center (ZTCC). Methods: Using a case study approach, the authors illustrate how DOHMH leveraged protocols, equipment, and other resources used previously during DOHMH's Ebola emergency response to meet NYC's urgent Zika virus testing needs. To request Zika virus testing, providers call the ZTCC; if patients meet testing criteria, the ZTCC collects data necessary to complete requisition forms and sends the forms back to providers. The ZTCC also provides guidance on specimens needed for Zika virus testing. Providers submit completed requisition forms and appropriate specimens to DOHMH for testing. Results: During March 21 through July 21, 2016, testing for 3,866 patients was coordinated through the ZTCC. Conclusion: The ZTCC exemplifies how a health department, using previous emergency response experiences, can quickly address local testing needs for an emerging infectious disease. Key words: Zika virus, emerging infectious disease, emergency response DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0303


Article
Bootstrapping disaster: The challenge of growing and maintaining a cross-sector collaborative network
Aaron Wachhaus, PhD
November/December 2016; pages 397-411

Abstract
This article examines the interaction of nonprofit and private actors with the traditional bureaucratic structures of government in central Pennsylvania's recovery from hurricane Irene and tropical storm Lee. That effort relied heavily on private and nonprofit organizations as drivers of the response and recovery. The author maps the organizations involved in the recovery effort and explores the impact of the recovery effort on those organizations. A social network analysis was conducted and complemented with follow-up interviews with key actors. The network analysis reveals weak communication between sectors and a reliance on nonprofits to deliver services; interviews uncover the challenges of intersectoral collaboration. The author addresses the successes and limitations of the means by which a network of nonprofit efforts were coordinated with federal and state relief efforts and draw lessons for improving future practices. The author finds that this case deviates from theory in several ways that complicated community response and recovery. In particular, the challenges of developing and maintaining a recovery network while simultaneously delivering services placed great strain on several organizations, as well as on the fledgling network as a whole. Key words: disaster, social network analysis, collaboration DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0304


Article
Private sector involvement in times of armed conflict: What are the constraints for trading medical equipment?
Georg Schmidt, MA
November/December 2016; pages 413-421

Abstract
Objective: Today, healthcare facilities are highly dependent on the private sector to keep their medical equipment functioning. Moreover, private sector involvement becomes particularly important for the supply of spare parts and consumables. However, in times of armed conflict, the capacity of the corporate world appears to be seriously hindered. Subsequently, this study researches the influence of armed conflict on the private medical equipment sector. Design: This study follows a qualitative approach by conducting 19 interviews with representatives of the corporate world in an active conflict zone. A semistructured interview guide, consisting of 10 questions, was used to examine the constraints of this sector. Results: The results reveal that the lack of skilled personnel, complicated importation procedures, and a decrease in financial capacity are the major constraints faced by private companies dealing in medical equipment in conflict zones. Conclusions: Even when no official sanctions and embargoes for medical items exist, constraints for trading medical equipment are clearly recognizable. Countries at war would benefit from a centralized structure that deals with the importation procedures for medical items, to assist local companies in their purchasing procedures. A high degree of adaption is needed to continue operating, despite the emerging constraints of armed conflict. Future studies might research the constraints for manufacturers outside the conflict to export medical items to the country of war. Key words: armed conflict, medical equipment, private sector, disaster management DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0305


Article
Family emergency plan and preparedness among medical practitioners in Zaria, Nigeria
Jerry Godfrey Makama, MBBS, FWACS, FACS; Istifanus Anekoson Joshua, MBBS, MPH; Elizabeth Jerry Makama, RN, RM, PGDDRMDS, MDRMDS
November/December 2016; pages 423-430

Abstract
Background: There has been an increase in the incidence of disasters in many parts of the world. Similarly, Nigeria has witnessed a recent increase of man-made disaster events such as plane crash, fire incidents, flood, and building collapse, including bomb blast orchestrated by terrorists that often create emergency situations. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate family emergency plan and preparedness among medical practitioners in Zaria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study (May-July, 2013) of medical practitioners in Zaria, Nigeria. The structured questionnaire sought the socio-demographic features of the respondents, the availability of emergency gate(s) in the house, education of safety measures within and outside the house, well-known located shut-off devices for gases, electricity, and water in the house, and written document/policy in the event of disaster. Also, planned orientations/drills/sensitizations, whether there is contact information of family members and supporting agencies. Results: Majority of the respondents were male 56 (80.0 percent) and fall within the age group of 46-50 years (20.0 percent). Only 8.6 percent admitted having an unwritten policy on emergency management in their houses. Similarly, only 8.6 percent do create time to teach their family members on emergency management. Only 27 (38.6 percent) had emergency supplies kits and among this group, water appears to be the most essential component that the respondents had paid attention to, leaving out special items. The communication plans of respondents to likely supportive services/agencies during disaster showed that majority had contact address or have affirmative plans for hospital and ambulance services than for radio and television stations. Conclusion: Family emergency plans and preparedness among medical practitioners in Zaria are extremely low. There is a gap between knowledge of what need to be done to enhance preparedness and internalizing preparedness recommendations in the study area. Key words: family, household, emergency plan, disaster, preparedness, Nigeria DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0306


Article
Using a novel technology for disaster staff notification
Stephen C. Morris, MD, MPH; Janice K. Pelley; Steven H. Mitchell, MD, FACEP
November/December 2016; pages 431-433

Abstract
Notification of backup staff and determining their ability to augment frontline staff is a major component of any disaster plan. However, the communication and organization of this effort has many challenges. These include communication system overload, the disaster setting, disrupted transportation, and staffing impacts on normal operations. An optimal disaster notification system must have the ability to be modified to include all hazards and the unique environment in which the plan is being made. This article highlights a unique disaster staff notification system using a novel technology, an outside administrator, and a multilayer system of redundant communication. Key words: disaster, staff notification, disaster administration, emergency department, emergency planning DOI:10.5055/jem.2016.0307