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Journal of Emergency Management
January/February 2015, Volume 13
, Number 1


Article
Emergency preparedness of families of children with developmental disabilities: What public health and safety emergency planners need to know
Susan Wolf-Fordham, JD; Carol Curtin, MSW; Melissa Maslin, MEd; Linda Bandini, PhD; Charles D. Hamad, PhD
January/February 2015; pages 7-18

Abstract
Objective: To assess the emergency preparedness knowledge, behaviors, and training needs of families of children with developmental disabilities (DD). Design: An online survey. Participants: A sample of 314 self-selecting US parents/guardians of children with DD, aged birth-21 years. Main outcome measures: 1) Preparedness self-assessment; 2) self-report regarding the extent to which families followed 11 specific preparedness action steps derived from publicly available preparedness guides; and 3) parent training and support needs. Results: Although most participants assessed themselves to be somewhat to moderately well prepared, even those who reported being “very well prepared” had taken fewer than half of 11 recommended action steps. Most participants expressed a need for preparedness support; virtually all the respondents felt that training was either important or very important. Conclusions: Children with disabilities are known to be particularly vulnerable to negative disaster impacts. Overall, parents in this study appeared under-prepared to meet family disaster needs, although they recognized its importance. The results suggest opportunities and methods for public health and safety planning, education and outreach to parents of children with DD who would benefit from targeted training such as information and skill building to develop effective family preparedness plans and connections to local emergency management and responders. Key words: children, developmental disabilities, emergencies, disasters, functional and access needs, emergency planning, emergency preparedness DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0213


Article
Evaluation of emergency drug releases from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Quarantine Stations
Shahrokh Roohi, RN, MPH; Margaret Grinnell, BS; Michelle Sandoval, MPH; Nicole J. Cohen, MD; Kimberly Crocker, BSN, RN; Christopher Allen, RPh, MPH; Cindy Dougherty, PharmD, RPh; Julian Jolly, PharmD, RPh; Nicki Pesik, MD
January/February 2015; pages 19-23

Abstract
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Quarantine Stations distribute select lifesaving drug products that are not commercially available or are in limited supply in the United States for emergency treatment of certain health conditions. Following a retrospective analysis of shipment records, the authors estimated an average of 6.66 hours saved per shipment when drug products were distributed from quarantine stations compared to a hypothetical centralized site from CDC headquarters in Atlanta, GA. This evaluation supports the continued use of a decentralized model which leverages CDC's regional presence and maximizes efficiency in the distribution of lifesaving drugs. Key words: public health, botulism, diphtheria, malaria DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0214


Article
Predisaster integration of Community Emergency Response Teams
Jessica Jensen, PhD; John Carr, MS
January/February 2015; pages 25-35

Abstract
Objective: The Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) program has been increasingly used within local emergency management systems since the United States’ Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) adopted and began promoting the program in 1993. The objective of this study was to explore the integration of CERT programs within local emergency management systems predisaster. Design: Qualitative, semi-structured telephone interviews were used to collect data from a purposive sample of CERT program coordinators. Setting: Telephone interviews were conducted with CERT program coordinators in FEMA Region VII (Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska). Subjects, participants: Twenty-five local county emergency managers participated in this study. Results: This study found that the integration of CERTs varied significantly. The extent to which most teams were integrated allowed them to be placed along an integration continuum and classified as one of three types including Least Integrated, Somewhat Integrated, and Highly Integrated. Other team characteristics seemed to covary with the team integration. A phenomenon of team Piggy Backing—where the integration of the team was no longer relevant—was also found. Conclusions: This study concludes by making a key recommendation that could benefit any CERT—add a module to the CERT training curriculum designed to integrate the individuals associated with the CERT program within their local emergency management system. Key words: disaster volunteers, spontaneous volunteerism, voluntary sector, preparedness, disaster response, community response, citizen preparedness programs, Community Emergency Response Team DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0215


Article
Emergency managers as change agents: Recognizing the value of management, leadership, and strategic management in the disaster profession
Heriberto Urby Jr, PhD, JD; David A. McEntire, PhD
January/February 2015; pages 37-51

Abstract
This article discusses the influence of management theory, some principles of leadership, four strategic management considerations, that are applied to emergency management, allow emergency managers to transform their followers, organizations, and communities at large. The authors argue that in the past there has been little recognition of the value, or application, of these three areas of emphasis in the disaster profession. Using more of these principles, emergency managers may transform into transformational change agents who make a difference in their followers' lives, who themselves transform other people and improve emergency management. Key words: change agents, tranformational leaders, emergency management, public administration, management, leadership, strategic management DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0216


Article
The variational effects of jurisdictional attributes on hazard mitigation planning costs
Andrea M. Jackman, PhD; Mario G. Beruvides, PhD, PE
January/February 2015; pages 53-60

Abstract
Under the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 and Federal Emergency Management Agency's subsequent Interim Final Rule, the requirement was placed on local governments to author and gain approval for a Hazard Mitigation Plan (HMP) for the areas under their jurisdiction. Low completion percentages for HMPs—less than one-third of eligible governments— were found by an analysis conducted 3 years after the final deadline for the aforementioned legislation took place. Follow-up studies showed little improvement at 5 and 8 years after the deadline. Based on these results, a previous study hypothesized that the cost of creating a HMP might be an influential factor in explaining why most jurisdictions had failed to write or gain approval for a HMP. The frequency of natural hazards experienced by the planning jurisdiction, the number of jurisdictions participating in the plan, and the population and population density were found to explain more than half of the variation in HMP costs. This study is a continuation of that effort, finding that there are significant differences in cost both across ranges of values for the jurisdictional attributes and single-jurisdictional versus multijurisdictional plans. Key words: mitigation, FEMA, planning DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0217


Article
The general use of outdoor warning sirens: A preliminary survey of emergency managers
Jerald A. Brotzge, PhD; William R. Donner, PhD
January/February 2015; pages 61-69

Abstract
With more direct, personal warning systems becoming popular, the continued maintenance of older warning systems, such as outdoor warning sirens, may be jeopardized as emergency managers (EMs) seek to optimize their limited budgets. However, the extent to which sirens are embedded into the American landscape and culture argues against their removal. To better quantify the distribution and use of outdoor warning sirens, an international survey of EMs was conducted to learn more about where siren systems are deployed and how they are operated. Approximately 593 respondents started the 31 question survey with 383 completing it. Questions were asked regarding siren network size, alternative warning systems, siren use and capabilities, and testing. For those without sirens, a series of questions were asked for why sirens were not used. In general, a lack of perceived threat, high costs, and large geographic area kept some jurisdictions from installing sirens. Of those that operate siren networks, half of networks are small (=10 sirens), while a small percentage of jurisdictions (6.3 percent) operate very large networks (>100). A large majority of respondents expected to maintain or expand their networks within the next 5 years. Three-quarters of respondents use additional warning systems. Nearly half of respondents use sirens for nonweather applications, and nearly two-thirds have the capability to use multiple sound alerts. Overall, sirens remain a popular tool for warning on a variety of local hazards though how the sirens are operated and tested vary widely by jurisdiction. Key words: outdoor warning sirens, tornadoes, warning technology DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0218


Article
Public health incident management: Logistical and operational aspects of the 2009 initial outbreak of H1N1 influenza in Mexico
Miguel A. Cruz, PhD; Nicole M. Hawk, MPA; Christopher Poulet, MS; Jose Rovira, MS; Edward N. Rouse, MPA
January/February 2015; pages 71-77

Abstract
Hosting an international outbreak response team can pose a challenge to jurisdictions not familiar with incident management frameworks. Basic principles of team forming, organizing, and executing mission critical activities require simple and flexible communication that can be easily understood by the host country's public health leadership and international support agencies. Familiarity with incident command system principles before a public health emergency could save time and effort during the initial phases of the response and aid in operationalizing and sustaining complex field activities throughout the response. The 2009 initial outbreak of H1N1 in Mexico highlighted the importance of adequately organizing and managing limited resources and expertise using incident management principles. This case study describes logistical and operational aspects of the response and highlights challenges faced during this response that may be relevant to the organization of public health responses and incidents requiring international assistance and cooperation. Key words: emergency management, outbreaks, incident command system, international agencies, public health DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0219

Journal of Emergency Management
March/April 2015, Volume 13
, Number 2


Article
Planning, Modeling, and Evaluating Transportation Systems for Emergency Evacuations A Special National Evacuation Conference Issue
Brian Wolshon, PhD, PE; John Renne, PhD, AICP; LTC Brant Mitchell
March/April 2015; pages 85-86

Abstract
A Special National Evacuation Conference Issue Special Issue Guest Editors: Brian Wolshon, PhD, PE John Renne, PhD, AICP LTC Brant Mitchell DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0221


Article
Considering culture in evacuation planning and consequence management
Wayne P. Bergeron, MS, DSc (Candidate)
March/April 2015; pages 87-92

Abstract
Because culture profoundly affects human behavior, it is important that emergency management decision makers from both government and the private sector who will be involved in the management of evacuation operations build cultural considerations into their planning, preparations, education, and training from the very beginning. Preparation in this regard ensures that when the crisis hits, the response efforts undertaken will at a minimum not disregard culture or make situations worse because of a lack of cultural understanding and optimally will use the consideration of culture to frame the most effective response possible to ultimately save lives and relieve suffering. Whether it is recognizing that in some cultures the decision to comply with evacuation advice and orders will be made by a matriarch or patriarch of the family, or that the ability of an entire extended family unit to remain together in the evacuation process will be the key to compliance, culture may be the pivotal factor in a successful outcome. It is these (and many more) small cultural considerations and an overall understanding of the effect that culture has on behavior that can enhance the overall effectiveness of a culturally aware organization involved in the management of evacuation operations and emergency response. Hopefully, this initial work begins a deeper discussion and evaluation of cultural aspects both concerning the populations and cultures impacted by events, but just as importantly, the cultures and cultural understanding of the responding organizations. Key words: cultural considerations, evacuation planning, consequence management DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0222


Article
Evacuation planning for plausible worst case inundation scenarios in Honolulu, Hawaii
Karl Kim, PhD; Pradip Pant, PhD; Eric Yamashita, MURP
March/April 2015; pages 93-108

Abstract
Honolulu is susceptible to coastal flooding hazards. Like other coastal cities, Honolulu's long-term economic viability and sustainability depends on how well it can adapt to changes in the natural and built environment. While there is a disagreement over the magnitude and extent of localized impacts associated with climate change, it is widely accepted that by 2100 there will be at least a meter in sea level rise (SLR) and an increase in extreme weather events. Increased exposure and vulnerabilities associated with urbanization and location of human activities in coastal areas warrants serious consideration by planners and policy makers. This article has three objectives. First, flooding due to the combined effects of SLR and episodic hydrometeorological and geophysical events in Honolulu are investigated and the risks to the community are quantified. Second, the risks and vulnerabilities of critical infrastructure and the surface transportation system are described. Third, using the travel demand software, travel distances and travel times for evacuation from inundated areas are modeled. Data from three inundation models were used. The first model simulated storm surge from a category 4 hurricane similar to Hurricane Iniki which devastated the island of Kauai in 1992. The second model estimates inundation based on five tsunamis that struck Hawaii. A 1-m increase in sea level was included in both the hurricane storm surge and tsunami flooding models. The third model used in this article generated a 500-year flood event due to riverine flooding. Using a uniform grid cell structure, the three inundation maps were used to assess the worst case flooding scenario. Based on the flood depths, the ruling hazard (hurricane, tsunami, or riverine flooding) for each grid cell was determined. The hazard layer was analyzed with socioeconomic data layers to determine the impact on vulnerable populations, economic activity, and critical infrastructure. The analysis focused both on evacuation needs and the critical elements of the infrastructure system that are needed to ensure effective response and recovery in the advent of flooding. This study shows that the coastal flooding will seriously affect the economy and employment. Extreme flooding events could affect 38 percent of the freeways, 44 percent of the highways, 69 percent of the arterial roads, and 40 percent of the local streets in the area examined. Approximately 80 percent of the economy and 76 percent of the total employment in the urban core of Honolulu is exposed to flooding. Evacuation modeling, shelter accessibility, and travel time to shelter analyses revealed that there is a significant shortage in sheltering options, as well as increases in travel times and distances as inundation depth increases. The findings are useful for evacuation and shelter planning for extreme coastal events, as well as for climate change adaptation planning in Honolulu. Recommendations for emergency responders as well as those interested in the integration of long-term SLR and low probability, high consequence coastal hazards are included. The study shows how to integrate travel demand modeling across multiple hazards and threats related to evacuating, sheltering, and disaster risk reduction. Key words: sea level rise, hurricane storm surge, river flooding, travel demand modeling, evacuation, risk reduction, Honolulu DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0223


Article
Conceptualizing intragroup and intergroup dynamics within a controlled crowd evacuation
Terra Elzie, ME; Erika Frydenlund, MS; Andrew J. Collins, PhD; R. Michael Robinson, PhD
March/April 2015; pages 109-120

Abstract
Social dynamics play a critical role in successful pedestrian evacuations. Crowd modeling research has made progress in capturing the way individual and group dynamics affect evacuations; however, few studies have simultaneously examined how individuals and groups interact with one another during egress. To address this gap, the researchers present a conceptual agent-based model (ABM) designed to study the ways in which autonomous, heterogeneous, decision-making individuals negotiate intragroup and intergroup behavior while exiting a large venue. A key feature of this proposed model is the examination of the dynamics among and between various groupings, where heterogeneity at the individual level dynamically affects group behavior and subsequently group/group interactions. ABM provides a means of representing the important social factors that affect decision making among diverse social groups. Expanding on the 2013 work of Vizzari et al., the researchers focus specifically on social factors and decision making at the individual group and group/group levels to more realistically portray dynamic crowd systems during a pedestrian evacuation. By developing a model with individual, intragroup, and intergroup interactions, the ABM provides a more representative approximation of real-world crowd egress. The simulation will enable more informed planning by disaster managers, emergency planners, and other decision makers. This pedestrian behavioral concept is one piece of a larger simulation model. Future research will build toward an integrated model capturing decision-making interactions between pedestrians and vehicles that affect evacuation outcomes. Key words: agent-based model, decision-making, evacuation, pedestrian, simulation DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0224


Article
Selection and allocation of manual traffic control points and personnel during emergencies
Scott A. Parr, PhD, EIT; Brian Wolshon, PhD, PE, PTOE; Vinayak Dixit, PhD, PE
March/April 2015; pages 121-133

Abstract
Manual traffic control is an intersection control strategy in which law enforcement officers allocate intersection right-of-way to turning movements. Many emergency traffic management plans call for manual traffic control in response to oversaturated roadway conditions. This is because it is thought to more effectively move traffic during temporary surges in demand. The goal of this research was to evaluate the current state-of the- practice used by the Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) in selecting intersections for manual traffic control and allocating police personnel to them during emergencies. This research uses the emergency traffic management plans developed by the ACE for nine counties in the Maryland Eastern Shore region. This area encompassing 14,318 intersections of which 74 were selected for manual traffic control during emergencies. This work sought to quantify the correlations that exist between intersection attributes and the ACE' decision to allocate officers to control them. The research findings suggest that US routes, State routes, and emergency evacuation routes are statistically significant in determining the need for police control at intersections. Also significant are intersection on contraflow corridors and intersections near grade separated interchanges. The model also determined that intersections isolated from evacuation routes and county exits were more likely to be selected for manual control, indicating that rural areas may rely on manual traffic control in the absence of multilane highway and freeways. This research also found that intersections involving evacuation routes, contraflow corridors, and grade separated interchanges may warrant additional police personnel (two or more officers) for manual traffic control. Key words: manual traffic control, emergency traffic management, binary logit model DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0225


Article
The impact of a major earthquake on the evacuation of the emergency planning zone of a nuclear power plant
Rebecca Cohen, EIT; Kevin Weinisch, PE
March/April 2015; pages 135-143

Abstract
United States regulations require nuclear power plants (NPPs) to estimate the time needed to evacuate the emergency planning zone (EPZ, a circle with an approximate 10-mile radius centered at the NPP). These evacuation time estimate (ETE) studies are to be used by emergency personnel in the event of a radiological emergency. ETE studies are typically done using traffic simulation and evacuation models, based on traffic engineering algorithms that reflect congestion and delay. ETE studies are typically conducted assuming all evacuation routes are traversable. As witnessed in the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011, an earthquake and the ensuing tsunami can cause an incident at a NPP that requires an evacuation of the public. The earthquake and tsunami can also damage many of the available bridges and roadways and, therefore, impede evacuation and put people at risk of radiation exposure. This article presents a procedure, using traffic simulation and evacuation models, to estimate the impact on ETE due to bridge and roadway damage caused by a major earthquake, or similar hazardous event. The results of this analysis are used by emergency personnel to make protective action decisions that will minimize the exposure of radiation to the public. Additionally, the results allow emergency planners to ensure proper equipment and personnel are available for these types of events. Emergency plans are revised to ensure prompt response and recovery action during critical times. Key words: evacuation, earthquake, nuclear, power, Plant DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0226


Article
The impact of shadow evacuation on evacuation time estimates for nuclear power plants
Kevin Weinisch, PE; Paul Brueckner, BA
March/April 2015; pages 145-158

Abstract
A shadow evacuation is the voluntary evacuation of people from areas outside a declared evacuation area. Shadow evacuees can congest roadways and inhibit the egress of those evacuating from an area at risk. Federal regulations stipulate that nuclear power plant (NPP) licensees in the United States must conduct an Evacuation Time Estimate (ETE) study after each decennial census. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published federal guidance for conducting ETE studies in November 2011. This guidance document recommends the consideration of a Shadow Region which extends 5 miles radially beyond the existing 10-mile Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) for NPPs. The federal guidance also suggests the consideration of the evacuation of 20 percent of the permanent resident population in the Shadow Region in addition to 100 percent of the declared evacuation region within the EPZ when conducting ETE studies. The 20 percent recommendation was questioned in a March 2013 report prepared by the US Government Accountability Office. This article discusses the effects on ETE of increasing the shadow evacuation from 20 to 60 percent for 48 NPPs in the United States. Only five (10 percent) of the 48 sites show a significant increase (30 minutes or greater) in 90th percentile ETE (time to evacuate 90 percent of the population in the EPZ), while seven (15 percent) of the 48 sites show a significant increase in 100th percentile ETE (time to evacuate all population in the EPZ). Study areas that are prone to a significant increase in ETE due to shadow evacuation are classified as one of four types; case studies are presented for one plant of each type to explain why the shadow evacuation significantly affects ETE. A matrix of the four case types can be used by emergency management personnel to predict during planning stages whether the evacuated area is prone to a significant increase in ETE due to shadow evacuation. Potential mitigation tactics that reduce demand (public information) or increase capacity (contraflow, traffic control points, specialized intersection treatments) to offset the impact of shadow evacuation are discussed. Key words: shadow evacuation, nuclear evacuation, nuclear power plant, DYNEV, mitigation, traffic control, ETE DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0227


Article
Experimental modeling of the effect of hurricane wind forces on driving behavior and vehicle performance
Jose M. Rodriguez, MS; Julius Codjoe, MS; Osama Osman, MS; Sherif Ishak, PhD; Brian Wolshon, PhD
March/April 2015; pages 159-172

Abstract
While traffic planning is important for developing a hurricane evacuation plan, vehicle performance on the roads during extreme weather conditions is critical to the success of the planning process. This novel study investigates the effect of gusty hurricane wind forces on the driving behavior and vehicle performance. The study explores how the parameters of a driving simulator could be modified to reproduce wind loadings experienced by three vehicle types (passenger car, ambulance, and bus) during gusty hurricane winds, through manipulation of appropriate software. Thirty participants were then tested on the modified driving simulator under five wind conditions (ranging from normal to hurricane category 4). The driving performance measures used were heading error and lateral displacement. The results showed that higher wind forces resulted in more varied and greater heading error and lateral displacement. The ambulance had the greatest heading errors and lateral displacements, which were attributed to its large lateral surface area and light weight. Two mathematical models were developed to estimate the heading error and lateral displacements for each of the vehicle types for a given change in lateral wind force. Through a questionnaire, participants felt the different characteristics while driving each vehicle type. The findings of this study demonstrate the valuable use of a driving simulator to model the behavior of different vehicle types and to develop mathematical models to estimate and quantify driving behavior and vehicle performance under hurricane wind conditions. Key words: vehicle performance, driving behavior, driving simulator, hurricanes, wind forces DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0228


Article
Options for improving evacuation: Investigating an unconventional strategy and expanding route options using TRansportation ANalysis and SIMulation System
Carol Abel Lewis, PhD; Sandra Onyejekwe, MS; Garlin Wynn, MS; Brandon Mosley, MS
March/April 2015; pages 173-181

Abstract
Various agencies including state departments of transportation, emergency management offices, a municipal works agency, or a highway patrol agency may prepare evacuation plans. Storm strength and landfall predictions determine procedures and strategies. Studies have been conducted that examined various methods considering evacuees’ behaviors, traffic control, safety, and preferential routing. The occasions when a hurricane is imminent require residents to make a choice between sheltering-in-place or evacuating. Tremendous growth is anticipated in many US coastal communities and that will place greater pressure on evacuation strategies in future years. Given the inevitability of future hurricane evacuations and the intensive growth projections for US coastal areas, this research examines evacuation options with a focus on the Houston-Galveston region. The research examines two scenarios using the TRansportation ANalysis and SIMulation System simulation model which relies on a GIS base. Study results showed that both scenarios perform well as alternative options for inclusion in regional planning. It is recommended that these two scenarios be included in the array of responses available for decision makers depending on the myriad of variables—citizen response, congestion levels on the roadways and location, and prediction of an impending storm. The options may be applied independently or in concert with other strategies. Key words: emergency evacuation, evacuation strategies, hurricane evacuation DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0229

Journal of Emergency Management
May/June 2015, Volume 13
, Number 3


Article
Editorial. Understanding emergency information management
Larry Roeder, MLS
May/June 2015; pages 188-190

Abstract
DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0231


Article
Editorial. Strengthening community resilience efforts in disasters: Exploring the roles of public libraries
Christine Hagar, PhD
May/June 2015; pages 191-194

Abstract
DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0232


Article
Disaster response and people experiencing homelessness: Addressing challenges of a population with limited resources
Bryan Wexler, MD, MPH; Mary-Elise Smith, MD, MA
May/June 2015; pages 195-200

Abstract
In this article the authors provide an overview of some issues that inhibit disaster planning and response for people experiencing homelessness and discuss the planning process conducted for this population in Worcester, MA. People experiencing homelessness face numerous challenges in preparing for disasters both natural and human caused. Similarly, providers attempting to aid these individuals must recognize and overcome various factors that hamper efforts to provide assistance. People experiencing homelessness lack the general resources many in the United States take for granted, including food, shelter, communication methods, and transportation. The population also has an increased prevalence of medical and psychiatric conditions. These factors amplify the typical difficulties in preparedness, communication, sheltering, and training for disasters. With these principles in mind, the authors reviewed the literature for best practices, identified potential stakeholders, and developed an annex to help address organization and delivery of care to those experiencing homelessness during a disaster. Key words: disaster planning, emergency preparedness, homelessness, vulnerable population DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0233


Article
Mitigating active shooter impact: Analysis for policy options based on agent/computer-based modeling
Charles Anklam III, PhD; Adam Kirby, MS; Filipo Sharevski, MS; J. Eric Dietz, PhD, PE
May/June 2015; pages 201-216

Abstract
Active shooting violence at confined settings, such as educational institutions, poses serious security concerns to public safety. In studying the effects of active shooter scenarios, the common denominator associated with all events, regardless of reason/intent for shooter motives, or type of weapons used, was the location chosen and time expended between the beginning of the event and its culmination. This in turn directly correlates to number of casualties incurred in any given event. The longer the event protracts, the more casualties are incurred until law enforcement or another barrier can react and culminate the situation. Objective: Using AnyLogic technology, devise modeling scenarios to test multiple hypotheses against free-agent modeling simulation to determine the best method to reduce casualties associated with active shooter scenarios. Design, setting, subjects: Test four possible scenarios of responding to active shooter in a public school setting using agent-based computer modeling techniques—scenario 1: basic scenario where no access control or any type of security is used within the school; scenario 2, scenario assumes that concealed carry individual(s) (5-10 percent of the work force) are present in the school; scenario 3, scenario assumes that the school has assigned resource officer; scenario 4, scenario assumes that the school has assigned resource officer and concealed carry individual(s) (5-10 percent) present in the school. Main outcomes measured: Statistical data from modeling scenarios indicating which tested hypothesis resulted in fewer casualties and quicker culmination of event. Results: The use of AnyLogic proved the initial hypothesis that a decrease on response time to an active shooter scenario directly reduced victim casualties. Conclusions: Modeling tests show statistically significant fewer casualties in scenarios where on-scene armed responders such as resource officers and concealed carry personnel were present. Key words: active shooter, agent-based modeling, Mitigation DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0234


Article
Do social media have a place in public health emergency response?
David R. Black, PhD, MPH; J. Eric Dietz, PhD, PE; Amanda A. Stirratt, MPH; Daniel C. Coster, PhD
May/June 2015; pages 217-226

Abstract
Objectives: To ascertain whether analyses of social media trends for various Twitter responses following a major disaster produce implications for improving the focus on public health resources and messaging to disaster victims. Methods: Radian6 and trend analyses were used to analyze 12-hour counts of Twitter data before, during, and after the March 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami. Radian6 was used to organize tweets into categories of preparedness, emergency response, and public health. Results: Radian6 revealed that 49 percent of tweets were either positive or somewhat positive in sentiment about preparedness and only 7 percent were negative or somewhat negative. Trend analyses revealed a rapid onset of tweet activity associated with all keywords followed by mostly fast exponential decline. Analyses indicate that opportunities for improving public health awareness by leveraging social media communications exist for as much as 5 days after a disaster. Conclusions: Analyses suggest key times for public health social media communication to promote emergency response. Key words: social media, Twitter, Radian6, Japanese earthquake/tsunami, preparedness, public health DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0235


Article
Conceptual framework and quantification of population vulnerability for effective emergency response planning
Suhasini Ramisetty-Mikler, PhD, MPH; Armin R. Mikler, PhD; Martin O’Neill, PhD; Jared Komatz, MPH, CPH, GISS
May/June 2015; pages 227-238

Abstract
Objective: The study focused on the methodological advancement and analytical approach of using multilevel data to define population vulnerability and risk in bioemergency disaster planning. Methods: The authors considered two types of vulnerabilities, transportation vulnerability that stems from lack of access to transportation (public or private) and communication vulnerability that stems from unavailability of needed language-specific communication resources. The authors used Transit Authority general transit feed data and the American Community Survey 5-year estimate data (2006-2010 summary files) to quantify these vulnerabilities. These data were integrated with Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) data for spatial analysis. A response plan was generated for Tarrant County, TX, and deemed feasible before consideration of vulnerable populations. Results: The results point to the importance of integrating geographical and population demographic features that represent potential barriers to the optimum distribution and utilization of resources into the analysis of response plans. An examination of transportation vulnerabilities indicate that, of those vulnerable in Tarrant County, nearly 23,000 individuals will be at-risk of not being able to reach the Point Of Dispensing (POD) to obtain services as they are beyond walking distance to the POD and lack access to transportation resources. The analysis of language vulnerability depicts an uneven distribution resulting in nonuniform demand at PODs for translation resources. There are more than 11,000 at-risk households in the South East region of Tarrant County alone that are truly in need of translation services. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that multiple vulnerabilities at each POD can be quantified by aggregating the vulnerability at the available granularity (ie, all blocks or block groups) in a given service area. The quantification of vulnerability at each service area facilitates a POD-based at-risk analysis for the response plan. Disparities stemming from social, behavioral, cultural, economic, and health characteristics of diverse subpopulations could induce the need for additional targeted resources to support emergency response efforts. Key words: disaster preparedness, response planning, points of dispensing, population vulnerability, vulnerability analysis, health disparities DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0236


Article
Meaning reconstruction in the face of terror: An examination of recovery and posttraumatic growth among victims of the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks
Katherine M. Richardson, PhD
May/June 2015; pages 239-246

Abstract
This study examines the relationship between meaning reconstruction with posttraumatic growth and depreciation in the aftermath of terrorist trauma and loss. A group of individuals (n = 118) who were personally affected by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks were surveyed about their experiences and administered the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Impact of Event scales. Subjects were volunteer docents at the Tribute World Trade Center Visitor Center. Results revealed that ability to make sense of one's 9/11 experience was related to recovery but not to posttraumatic growth, whereas ability to find some benefit in the experience was related to growth. In addition, location in downtown Manhattan on September 11, 2001 was related to higher levels of posttraumatic depreciation. Findings suggest that two aspects of meaning reconstruction are differentially related to recovery and posttraumatic growth. Key words: September 11, terrorism, meaning reconstruction, recovery, posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic depreciation DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0237


Article
Crisis behavior: An exploration of theories in concert
Jason B. McConnell, JD; Christine Crudo, PhD
May/June 2015; pages 247-254

Abstract
Objective: How might prominent existing communication theory better explain behavior in a crisis context, when considered in concert with one another? Design: This theoretical work highlights the insight to be gained using Situational Crisis Communication Theory and Bandura's notions of self-efficacy to heighten the explanatory power of the Theory of Planned Behavior as applied to communication during times of crisis. Conclusion: Situational Crisis Communication Theory better explains how past experience with crisis influences the attitudes and social norms of crisis behavior, while Bandura's notion of self-efficacy speaks more directly to the availability of resources as contributing factors to perceived behavioral control in a crisis situation. As such, the incorporation of these well-developed notions into the broader framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior affords greater understanding of the relationship between communication and behavior during a crisis. Further exploration of this theoretical relationship is warranted. Key words: Theory of Planned Behavior, Situational Crisis Communication Theory, crisis behavior self-efficacy, crisis communication, perceived behavioral control DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0238


Article
Redesigning healthcare systems to meet the health challenges associated with climate change in the twenty-first century
Kai-Lit Phua, PhD
May/June 2015; pages 255-263

Abstract
In the twenty-first century, climate change is emerging as a significant threat to the health and well-being of the public through links to the following: extreme weather events, sea level rise, temperature-related illnesses, air pollution patterns, water security, food security, vector-borne infectious diseases, and mental health effects (as a result of extreme weather events and climate change-induced population displacement). This article discusses how national healthcare systems can be redesigned through changes in its components such as human resources, facilities and technology, health information system, and health policy to meet these challenges. Key words: climate change, healthcare systems, impact, redesign DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0239


Article
The Department of Defense and Homeland Security relationship: Hurricane Katrina through Hurricane Irene
John Michael Weaver, DPA
May/June 2015; pages 265-274

Abstract
This research explored federal intervention with the particular emphasis on examining how a collaborative relationship between Department of Defense (DOD) and Homeland Security (DHS) led to greater effectiveness between these two federal departments and their subordinates (United States Northern Command and Federal Emergency Management Agency, respectively) during the preparation and response phases of the disaster cycle regarding US continental-based hurricanes. Through the application of a two-phased, sequential mixed methods approach, this study determined how their relationship has led to longitudinal improvements in the years following Hurricane Katrina, focusing on hurricanes as the primary unit of analysis. Key words: DOD, DHS, hurricanes, preparation, response, FEMA, NORTHCOM DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0240

Journal of Emergency Management
July/August 2015, Volume 13
, Number 4


Article
Social media use in emergency management
Clayton Wukich, PhD
July/August 2015; pages 281-294

Abstract
Objective: To identify and illustrate the range of strategies and tactics available for emergency managers using social media. Design: This study uses content analysis of more than 80 related journal articles, research reports, and government documents as well as more than 120 newspaper articles, identified through LexisNexis search queries. Results: Three strategies, information dissemination, monitoring real-time data, and engaging the public in a conversation and/or crowdsourcing, are available to emergency managers to augment communication practices via face-to-face contact and through traditional media outlets. Academic research has identified several message types disseminated during response operations.1,2 Message types during other emergency phases have received less attention; however, news reporting and government reports provide best practices and inform this study. This article provides the foundation for a more complete typology of emergency management messages. Relatedly, despite limited attention in the academic research, monitoring social media feeds to accrue situational awareness and interacting with others to generate a conversation and/or to coordinate collective action also take place in various forms and are discussed. Conclusions: Findings integrate the fragmented body of knowledge into a more coherent whole and suggest that practitioners might maximize outcomes through a three-step process of information dissemination, data monitoring, and the direct engagement of diverse sets of actors to spur risk reduction efforts. However, these steps require time, personnel, and resources, which present obstacles for agencies operating under conditions of personnel and resource scarcity. Key words: social media, crowdsourcing, situational awareness, emergency management, public safety DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0242


Article
A cross-sectional survey of patient needs in hospital evacuation
Rune Rimstad, MD; Anders Holtan, MD
July/August 2015; pages 295-301

Abstract
To aid development of contingency plans, a cross-sectional survey of inpatient needs in the event of a total hospital evacuation within a few hours was undertaken. The hospital is a part of a tertiary care facility with a mixed surgical and medical population and a relatively large load of emergency medicine. A doctor or nurse on each ward registered patients' physical mobility, special needs complicating transportation (intensive care, labor, isolation, etc), and the lowest acceptable level of care after evacuation. Of the 760 included patients, 57.8 percent could walk, 20.0 percent needed wheelchair, and 22.2 percent needed transport on stretcher. Special needs were registered for 18.2 percent of patients. Only 49.7 percent of patients needed to be evacuated to another hospital to continue care on an acceptable level, while 37.6 percent could be discharged to their own home, and 12.6 percent could be evacuated to a nursing home. Patients in psychiatric wards and high dependency units had distinctly different needs than patients in ordinary somatic wards. The differences between patients in surgical and nonsurgical wards were minor. Patient discharge seems to be a considerable capacity buffer in a hospital crisis situation. Key words: hospitals, evacuation, needs assessment, continuity of patient care, disaster planning DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0243


Article
Active shooter in educational facility
Scott Downs, AA, BA, MS, CAS
July/August 2015; pages 303-326

Abstract
The last decade has seen several of the most heinous acts imaginable committed against our educational facilities. In light of the recent shooting in Sandy Hook Elementary School in Monroe (Newtown), CT, which took the lives of 20 children and six employees, a new heightened sense of awareness for safety and security among our educational facilities was created.1 The law enforcement and public-safety community is now looking to work together with many of the educational representatives across the nation to address this issue, which affects the educational environment now and in the future. The US public and private elementary and secondary school systems’ population is approximately 55.2 million students with an additional 19.1 million students attending a 2- and 4-year college or university. These same public and private school and degree-granting institutions employ approximately 7.6 million staff members who can be an enormous threshold of potential targets.2 A terrorist's act, whether domestic, international, or the actions of a Lone Wolf against one of our educational facilities, would create a major rippling effect throughout our nation. Terrorists will stop at nothing to advance their ideology and they must continue to advance their most powerful tool—fear—to further their agenda and mission of destroying our liberty and the advanced civilization of the Western hemisphere. To provide the safety and security for our children and those who are employed to educate them, educational institutions must address this issue as well as nullify the possible threat to our national security. This thesis used official government reports and data interview methodologies to address various concerns from within our nation's educational system. Educational personnel along with safety and security experts identified, describe, and pinpointed the recommended measures that our educational institutions should include to secure our nation from within. These modifications of evaluating and updating their current emergency operations plan, if implemented correctly, will bring heightened awareness, as well as define roles and responsibilities, to everyone involved. In addition, these implementations will assist in coordinating and strengthening a multiagency partnership's among the public-safety community that will mitigate the risk to our student body, faculty, and staff, and strengthen our national security. Key words: active shooter, homeland security, communication, EOP, lock-down, training DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0244


Article
Filling the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks of urban emergency management: Following the 2013 Seoul Floods
Minsun Song, PhD candidate; Kyujin Jung, PhD
July/August 2015; pages 327-338

Abstract
Objective: To examine the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks following the 2013 Seoul Floods in which the rapid transmission of disaster information and resources was impeded by severe changes of interorganizational collaboration networks. Design/setting/methodology/approach: This research uses the 2013 Seoul Emergency Management Survey data that were collected before and after the floods, and total 94 organizations involving in coping with the floods were analyzed in bootstrap independent- sample t-test and social network analysis through UCINET 6 and STATA 12. Results: The findings show that despite the primary network form that is more hierarchical, horizontal collaboration has been relatively invigorated in actual response. Also, interorganizational collaboration networks for response operations seem to be more flexible grounded on improvisation to coping with unexpected victims and damages. Conclusions: Local organizations under urban emergency management are recommended to tightly build a strong commitment for joint response operations through full-size exercises at the metropolitan level before a catastrophic event. Also, interorganizational emergency management networks need to be restructured by reflecting the actual response networks to reduce collaboration risk during a disaster. Originality/innovations: This research presents a critical insight into inverse thinking of the view designing urban emergency management networks and provides original evidences for filling the gap between previously coordinated networks for disaster preparedness and practical response operations after a disaster. Key words: urban emergency management, interorganizational collaboration, Seoul floods DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0245


Article
Medical interpreters and bilingual school staff: Potential disaster information conduits?
Brooke R. Ike, MPH; Rebecca Calhoun, MPH; Antoinette S. Angulo, MPH; Hendrika Meischke, PhD, MPH; Kirsten D. Senturia, PhD
July/August 2015; pages 339-348

Abstract
Objectives: Dissemination of trusted disaster information to limited English proficient (LEP) communities may mitigate the negative effects these higher risk communities experience in disasters. For immigrant communities, disaster messages may be perceived with skepticism, and fear of public officials may affect compliance with disaster messages. This study explores whether medical interpreters (MIs) and bilingual school staff (BSS) are already informal information sources for LEP communities, and could their connection to both public service organizations and LEP communities make them ideal efficient, trusted disaster information conduits for LEP communities. Design: The authors conducted a mixed methods study, which included MI individual interviews, Latino community focus groups, an MI employer survey, and school administrator interviews. Setting: To ensure diversity in the sample, data were collected in both Los Angeles and Seattle. Results: MIs, MI employers, and schools are willing to communicate disaster information to LEP communities. MIs and BSS are connected to and share information with LEP communities. Latino LEP communities are eager for more disaster information and sources. Conclusions: The study adds to the evidence that a multipronged approach that includes collaborating with professionals linked to immigrant communities, such as MIs and BSS, could be an effective method of disaster information dissemination. Working with MIs and BSS as part of a wider dissemination strategy would promote a community-based interpersonal flow of information that would contribute to LEP community’s trust in the message. Key words: limited English proficient, disaster communication, medical interpreters, bilingual school staff DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0246


Article
A whole community approach to emergency management: Strategies and best practices of seven community programs
Robyn K. Sobelson, PhD; Corinne J. Wigington, MPH; Victoria Harp, BA; Bernice B. Bronson, MPH
July/August 2015; pages 349-357

Abstract
Objective: In 2011, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) published the Whole Community Approach to Emergency Management: Principles, Themes, and Pathways for Action, outlining the need for increased individual preparedness and more widespread community engagement to enhance the overall resiliency and security of communities. However, there is limited evidence of how to build a whole community approach to emergency management that provides real-world, practical examples and applications. This article reports on the strategies and best practices gleaned from seven community programs fostering a whole community approach to emergency management. Design: The project team engaged in informal conversations with community stakeholders to learn about their programs during routine monitoring activities, site visits, and during an in-person, facilitated workshop. A total of 88 community members associated with the programs examples contributed. Qualitative analysis was conducted. Results: The findings highlighted best practices gleaned from the seven programs that other communities can leverage to build and maintain their own whole community programs. The findings from the programs also support and validate the three principles and six strategic themes outlined by FEMA. Conclusions: The findings, like the whole community document, highlight the importance of understanding the community, building relationships, empowering action, and fostering social capital to build a whole community approach. Key words: emergency management, whole community, best practices DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0247


Article
A decision support framework for characterizing and managing dermal exposures to chemicals during Emergency Management and Operations
G. Scott Dotson, PhD, CIH; Naomi L. Hudson, DrPH; Andrew Maier, PhD, DABT, CIH
July/August 2015; pages 359-380

Abstract
Emergency Management and Operations (EMO) personnel are in need of resources and tools to assist in understanding the health risks associated with dermal exposures during chemical incidents. This article reviews available resources and presents a conceptual framework for a decision support system (DSS) that assists in characterizing and managing risk during chemical emergencies involving dermal exposures. The framework merges principles of three decision-making techniques: 1) scenario planning, 2) risk analysis, and 3) multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). This DSS facilitates dynamic decision making during each of the distinct life cycle phases of an emergency incident (ie, preparedness, response, or recovery) and identifies EMO needs. A checklist tool provides key questions intended to guide users through the complexities of conducting a dermal risk assessment. The questions define the scope of the framework for resource identification and application to support decision-making needs. The framework consists of three primary modules: 1) resource compilation, 2) prioritization, and 3) decision. The modules systematically identify, organize, and rank relevant information resources relating to the hazards of dermal exposures to chemicals and risk management strategies. Each module is subdivided into critical elements designed to further delineate the resources based on relevant incident phase and type of information. The DSS framework provides a much needed structure based on contemporary decision analysis principles for 1) documenting key questions for EMO problem formulation and 2) a method for systematically organizing, screening, and prioritizing information resources on dermal hazards, exposures, risk characterization, and management. Key words: chemicals, decision analysis, dermal, Emergency Management and Operations, risk analysis, Hazards DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0248

Journal of Emergency Management
September/October 2015, Volume 13
, Number 5


Article
Field, discipline, and profession: Understanding three major labels of emergency management
Heriberto Urby, PhD, JD; David A. McEntire, PhD
September/October 2015; pages 389-400

Abstract
The “field,” “discipline,” and “profession”—three major labels of emergency management—have often been interchanged as if any of these define the others. In this work, the authors examine these major labels to provide meaning, explanation, and application to each one based on the emergency management literature currently available. The authors accomplish this by the following: 1) defining and describing the established field's progression through the years; 2) examining how close we are to a discipline in today's emergency management arena; 3) discussing the advancement to becoming a profession; and 4) providing recommendations for the future. Clarifying these three major labels, the development of the field into a formidable and mature discipline as well as a distinguished and noble profession may be hastened. Key words: emergency management, disaster professionalism, evolution of EM field DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0250


Article
A Flex-Model for long-term assessment of community-residing older adults following disasters
Marlene M. Rosenkoetter, PhD, RN, CNS, FAAN; JoEllen McDonough, PhD, RN; Amber McCall, PhD, RN; Deborah Smith, DNP, RN; Stephen Looney, PhD
September/October 2015; pages 401-416

Abstract
For the rapidly growing older adult population, disaster consequences are frequently life disruptive and even life threatening. By 2050, it is estimated that the global older adult population will reach 22 percent of the total. With declining health, this population poses a particular risk needing to be addressed in emergency preparedness and disaster recovery. The purpose of this article is to describe a Flex-Model (F-M) for the long-term assessment of older adults following a disaster. An F-M is a series of three-dimensional representations of an archetype with flexible components, both linear and parallel, that can be adapted to situations, time, place, and needs. The model incorporates the Life Patterns Model and provides a template that can be adjusted to meet the needs of a local community, healthcare providers, and emergency management officials, regardless of the country or region, during the months after a disaster. The focus is on changes resulting from the disaster including roles, relationships, support systems, use of time, self-esteem, and life structure. Following a baseline assessment, each of these life patterns is assessed through the model with options for interventions over time. A pilot study was conducted in Georgia to gain information that would be helpful in developing a more specific assessment tool following a severe winter storm. While this is a local study, the findings can nevertheless be used to refine and focus the F-M for future implementation. Results indicated that older adults used high-risk heating and lighting sources and many were totally responsible for their own welfare. Findings have implications for emergency preparedness and long-term recovery. Key words: disasters, assessments of older adults DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0251


Article
Managing nuclear power plant induced disasters
Dean Kyne, PhD, MPA, MPS
September/October 2015; pages 417-429

Abstract
Objective: To understand the management process of nuclear power plant (NPP) induced disasters. The study shields light on phases and issues associated with the NPP induced disaster management. Setting: This study uses Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Station as study subject and Arizona State as study area. Design: This study uses the Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis (RASCAL) Source Term to Dose (STDose) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a computer software to project and assess the source term dose and release pathway. This study also uses ArcGIS, a geographic information system to analyze geospatial data. A detailed case study of Palo Verde Nuclear Power Generation (PVNPG) Plant was conducted. Results: The findings reveal that the NPP induced disaster management process is conducted by various stakeholders. To save lives and to minimize the impacts, it is vital to relate planning and process of the disaster management. Conclusions: Number of people who expose to the radioactive plume pathway and level of radioactivity could vary depending on the speed and direction of wind on the day the event takes place. This study findings show that there is a need to address the burning issue of different racial and ethnic groups’ unequal exposure and unequal protection to potential risks associated with the NPPs. Key words: nuclear power plant, potential nuclear power risks, disaster management, radioactive plume path dispersion DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0252


Article
An assessment of Chemical, Biological, Radiologic, Nuclear, and Explosive preparedness among emergency department healthcare providers in an inner city emergency department
Joseph G. Kotora, DO, MPH
September/October 2015; pages 431-446

Abstract
Introduction: Emergency healthcare providers are required to care for victims of Chemical, Biological, Radiologic, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE) agents. However, US emergency departments are often ill prepared to manage CBRNE casualties. Most providers lack adequate knowledge or experience in the areas of patient decontamination, hospital-specific disaster protocols, interagency familiarization, and available supply of necessary medical equipment and medications. This study evaluated the CBRNE preparedness of physicians, nurses, and midlevel providers in an urban tertiary care emergency department. Methods: This retrospective observational survey study used a previously constructed questionnaire instrument. A total of 205 e-mail invitations were sent to 191 eligible providers through an online survey distribution tool (Survey Monkey®). Respondents were enrolled from February 1, 2014 to March 15, 2014. Simple frequencies of correct answers were used to determine the level of preparedness of each group. Cronbach’s coefficient ??was used to validate the precision of the study instrument. Finally, validity coefficients and analysis of variance ANOVA were used to determine the strength of correlation between demographic variables, as well as the variation between individual responses. Results: Fifty-nine providers responded to the questionnaire (31.14 percent response rate). The overall frequency of correct answers was 66.26 percent, indicating a relatively poor level of CBRNE preparedness. The study instrument lacked precision and reliability (coefficient ??0.4050). Significant correlations were found between the frequency of correct answers and the respondents’ gender, practice experience, and previous experience with a CBRNE incident. Significant variance exists between how providers believe casualties should be decontaminated, which drugs should be administered, and the interpretation of facility-specific protocols. Conclusions: Emergency care providers are inadequately prepared to manage CBRNE incidents. Furthermore, a valid and precise instrument capable of measuring preparedness needs to be developed. Standardized educational curriculums that consider healthcare providers’ genders, occupations, and experience levels may assist in closing the knowledge gaps between providers and reinforce emergency departments’ CBRNE preparedness. Key words: disaster management, CBRNE, terrorism, decontamination DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0253


Article
Oil terrorism-militancy link: Mediating role of moral disengagement in emergency and crisis management
Oluwasoye Patrick Mafimisebi, PhD Student; Sara Thorne, PhD
September/October 2015; pages 447-458

Abstract
The controversial issues of terrorism and militancy have generated contemporary interests and different interpretations have emerged on how to combat and manage these dangerous events. This study widens understanding of moral disengagement mechanism application in the perpetuation of inhumanities within the context of oil terrorist and militant behaviors. The research findings and model are explicit on how people form moral evaluations of agents who are forced to make morally relevant decisions over times in context of crisis situations. Quite crucially, understanding the context of terrorism and militancy provides policymakers, emergency and crisis managers better analysis and response to such events. The research fundamental purpose was to investigate the mediating role of moral disengagement on delinquency of oil terrorism and militancy; and considered implications for emergency and crisis management practices. The study found that situational-induced crises such as oil terrorism and militancy were sufficient to account for an individual's misdeeds and unethical or inhumane decisions made under frustration and agitation may be perceived as less indicative of one's fundamental character. Findings suggest that more repugnant delinquencies could have been committed in the name of justice than in the name of injustice, avenues for future research. In context, the result of the moral disengagement scale shows that morality of delinquency (oil terrorism and militancy) is accomplished by cognitively redefining the morality of such acts. The main finding is that people in resistance movements are rational actors making rational choices. The authors argue that theorists, policymakers, and practitioners must give meaningful attention to understanding the multidimensional nature of emergency, crisis and disaster management for better strength of synthesis between theory and practice. The research is concluded by thorough examination of the implication and limitations for future research and practice. Key words: moral disengagement, oil terrorism, militancy, emergency, crisis and disaster DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0254


Article
Rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks after flooding disasters: Epidemiology, management, and prevention
James H. Diaz, MD, DrPH
September/October 2015; pages 459-467

Abstract
Objective: To alert clinicians to the climatic conditions that can precipitate outbreaks of the rodent-borne infectious diseases most often associated with flooding disasters, leptospirosis (LS), and the Hantavirus-caused diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS); to describe the epidemiology and presenting clinical manifestations and outcomes of these rodent-borne infectious diseases; and to recommend both prophylactic therapies and effective control and prevention strategies for rodent-borne infectious diseases. Design: Internet search engines, including Google®, Google Scholar®, Pub Med, Medline, and Ovid, were queried with the key words as search terms to examine the latest scientific articles on rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks in the United States and worldwide to describe the epidemiology and presenting clinical manifestations and outcomes of LS and Hantavirus outbreaks. Setting: Not applicable. Participants: Not applicable. Interventions: Not applicable. Main outcome measure: Rodent-borne infectious disease outbreaks following heavy rainfall and flooding disasters. Results: Heavy rainfall encourages excessive wild grass seed production that supports increased outdoor rodent population densities; and flooding forces rodents from their burrows near water sources into the built environment and closer to humans. Conclusions: Healthcare providers should maintain high levels of suspicion for LS in patients developing febrile illnesses after contaminated freshwater exposures following heavy rainfall, flooding, and even freshwater recreational events; and for Hantavirus-caused infectious diseases in patients with hemorrhagic fevers that progress rapidly to respiratory or renal failure following rodent exposures. Key words: Hantavirus, New World Hantaviruses, American Hantaviruses, Sin nombre virus, Bayou virus, Black Creek Canal virus, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Old World Hantaviruses, Leptospira interrogans, leptospirosis, Weil's disease, infectious disease outbreaks, climatic factors, rodent-borne DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0255


Article
Laboratory evaluation of airborne particulate control treatments for simulated aircraft crash recovery operations involving carbon fiber composite materials
Matthew Ferreri, MS, CIH; Jeremy Slagley, PhD, CIH, CSP; Daniel Felker, PhD
September/October 2015; pages 468-476

Abstract
Objective: This study compared four treatment protocols to reduce airborne composite fiber particulates during simulated aircraft crash recovery operations. Design: Four different treatments were applied to determine effectiveness in reducing airborne composite fiber particulates as compared to a “no treatment” protocol. Both “gold standard” gravimetric methods and real-time instruments were used to describe mass per volume concentration, particle size distribution, and surface area. The treatment protocols were applying water, wetted water, wax, or aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) to both burnt and intact tickets of aircraft composite skin panels. The tickets were then cut using a small high-speed rotary tool to simulate crash recovery operations. Setting: Aerosol test chamber. Subjects, participants: None. Interventions: Airborne particulate control treatments. Main outcome measures: Measures included concentration units of milligrams per cubic meter of air, particle size distribution as described by both count median diameter and mass median diameter and geometric standard deviation of particles in micrometers, and surface area concentration in units of square micrometers per cubic centimeter. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was run on the particle size distribution results. Comparison was made via one-way analysis of variance. Results: A significant difference (p < 0.0001) in idealized particle size distribution was found between the water and wetted water treatments as compared to the other treatments for burnt tickets. Conclusions: Emergency crash recovery operations should include a treatment of the debris with water or wetted water. The resulting increase in particle size will make respiratory protection more effective in protecting the response crews. Key words: composite materials, aircraft crash recovery, dust control DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0256

Journal of Emergency Management
November/December 2015, Volume 13
, Number 6


Article
Emergency management and homeland security: Exploring the relationship
Jerome H. Kahan, BA, BS, MSEE
November/December 2015; pages 483-498

Abstract
In the years after the 9/11 tragedy, the United States continues to face risks from all forms of major disasters, from potentially dangerous terrorist attacks to catastrophic acts of nature. Professionals in the fields of emergency management and homeland security have responsibilities for ensuring that all levels of government, urban areas and communities, nongovernmental organizations, businesses, and individual citizens are prepared to deal with such hazards though actions that reduce risks to lives and property. Regrettably, the overall efficiency and effectiveness of the nation's ability to deal with disasters is unnecessarily challenged by the absence of a common understanding on how these fields are related in the workforce and educational arenas. Complicating matters further is the fact that neither of these fields has developed agreed definitions. In many ways, homeland security and emergency management have come to represent two different worlds and cultures. These conditions can have a deleterious effect on preparedness planning for public and private stakeholders across the nation when coordinated responses among federal, state, and local activities are essential for dealing with consequential hazards. This article demonstrates that the fields of emergency management and homeland security share many responsibilities but are not identical in scope or skills. It argues that emergency management should be considered a critical subset of the far broader and more strategic field of homeland security. From analytically based conclusions, it recommends five steps that be taken to bring these fields closer together to benefit more from their synergist relationship as well as from their individual contributions. Key words: emergency management, homeland security, disaster response, Department of Homeland Security, FEMA, NEMA, first responders, emergency managers, IAEM DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0258


Article
The use of exercises to enhance and assess interlocal collaboration in preparedness: A qualitative analysis
Nicole A. Errett, PhD, MSPH, CPH, CEM; Shannon Frattaroli, PhD, MPH; Daniel J. Barnett, MD, MPH; Beth A. Resnick, MPH; Lainie Rutkow, PhD, JD, MPH
November/December 2015; pages 499-508

Abstract
Introduction: Interlocal collaboration, or collaboration among neighboring independent municipalities, has been generally accepted as an emergency preparedness strategy. In the absence of large-scale disasters, emergency preparedness exercises may serve to test the effectiveness of interlocal collaboration on emergency preparedness. However, the use of emergency preparedness exercises to enhance or assess interlocal collaboration, or its impact on preparedness, requires additional empirical exploration. Hypothesis/problem: This exploratory study aims to understand the perspectives of key informants (KIs) with broad knowledge of the history, goals, and implementation of the Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) program, as well as knowledge of interlocal collaboration exercises conducted as part of the UASI program, about the role of exercises in improving and assessing interlocal collaboration for emergency preparedness. Method: In early 2014, 28 KIs were interviewed during 24 semistructured interviews. Interviews were recorded and analyzed to identify key themes related to emergency preparedness exercises and the enhancement and assessment of interlocal collaboration. Results: KIs perceived exercises to enhance interlocal collaboration in preparedness by promoting regional, interlocal: risk assessment; emergency plan testing and operationalization; relationship development; support for regional plans and operational structures; capability delivery practice; best practice sharing across interlocal collaborations; and engagement of elected or senior leadership in interlocal preparedness endeavors. Exercise participants, scenarios, administration, formats, and assessment strategies to promote interlocal collaboration were identified. Conclusions: Seven distinct mechanisms by which exercises can enhance interlocal collaboration that can be used to guide future research and policy development were identified. The format, scenario, participation, and administration of emergency preparedness exercises can be tailored to enhance collaboration. Key words: disaster planning, disasters, financing, Government DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0259


Article
The evolution of shortcomings in Incident Command System: Revisions have allowed critical management functions to atrophy
Kimberly S Stambler, PhD, CEM; Joseph A. Barbera, MD
November/December 2015; pages 509-518

Abstract
The original Incident Command System (ICS) was created through the federally funded Firefighting Resources of Southern California Organized for Potential Emergencies (FIRESCOPE) program. Initially developed as one element of multiagency coordination for managing severe wildfires, the FIRESCOPE ICS guidance was adopted and evolved through increasingly routine wildland firefighting. It then was modified for all hazards for the fire service. Only later, through the National Incident Management System (NIMS), was ICS officially adopted for all hazards and all responders. Over this multidecade evolution, the current NIMS ICS version became simplified in several key areas compared to the original, robust FIRESCOPE ICS. NIMS ICS is now promulgated as guidance for managing today's novel, complex, and lengthy disasters involving multidisciplinary response but experiences recurrent problems in key functions. This article examines the history of the subtle, yet critical differences in current ICS compared to the original system design, and focuses on information dissemination and intermediate, long-range and contingency planning. ICS transitions resulted in simplification and consolidation of positions and functions, without recognizing and maintaining critical position tasks necessary for managing complex, extended incidents. Key words: Incident Command System, long-range planning, Information Officer, ICS evolution, incident projection DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0260


Article
Framework for crisis preparedness planning: Four required areas for developing a learning process
Kerstin Eriksson, PhD
November/December 2015; pages 519-531

Abstract
Objective: To outline a framework for preparedness planning at the organizational level. Design: The study is based on a content analysis of research literature as well as an analysis of interviews with six preparedness planners working in Swedish local authorities. Setting: The study setting included Swedish local authorities of different sizes. Subjects, participants: The participants are preparedness planners responsible for coordinating crisis management work in Swedish local authorities. The study includes preparedness planners with different backgrounds, education, experiences, and gender. Interventions: A presentation of 19 factors of preparedness planning identified in the literature and a discussion around how preparedness planners perceive those factors. Main outcome measure(s): The main outcome measures are knowledge about how both researcher and practitioner understand and argue around different factors of preparedness planning. Results: The result of this study is a framework for preparedness planning. As preparedness planning ought to be a learning process, the presented framework builds on four areas connected to learning: prerequisites for preparedness planning, who should be involved, what is to be learned, and how should the work be shaped. Conclusions: The analysis of factors identified in the literature and also in the interviews with preparedness planners illustrates that the four areas connected to learning are required for developing a preparedness planning process. Key words: preparedness planning, preparedness planner, learning, crisis, framework DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0261


Article
Religious congregations in disaster response
Sarah J. Bundy, PhD
November/December 2015; pages 532-538

Abstract
Knowledge of whether or not religious congregations are indeed involved in disaster response and—if involved—in what tasks and activities they are engaged is important for the planning and management of disaster response. Although limited in generalizability of findings based on methodologies used, a review of the academic literature demonstrates a fairly clear role for religious congregations in disaster recovery activities but does not delineate a distinct role for congregations in response functions. However, anecdotal evidence and limited empirical evidence exists that suggests that religious congregations might and could play a role in preimpact response activities, including warning, precautionary action, and evacuation, as well as in postimpact response activities associated with providing for the welfare of survivors. The research literature also provides predictors of congregational involvement, as well as a number of barriers and limitations to involvement. This involvement—or lack thereof—has implications for both the discipline and practice of emergency management. Key words: disaster response, religious congregations, emergency management DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0262


Article
What influences the acceptance of emergency management decision-support software? A study of county emergency management officials
Eliot A. Jennings, PhD; Sudha Arlikatti, PhD
November/December 2015; pages 539-551

Abstract
Objective: While the benefits of emergency management decision-support software (EMDSS) have been touted for helping reduce time in decision making, increasing interoperability, and real-time data management for effective disaster response, little is understood regarding the factors that influence the acceptance of these technologies by emergency management officials. This study aims to fill this gap and contribute to theory on user acceptance of EMDSS in the public sector and highlight practical constraints and solutions for emergency managers. Design: This research uses secondary data available from the 2006 survey of county emergency management agencies conducted by the National Center for the Study of Counties. Results: Having a lead county emergency management official with higher qualifications and an in-house geographic information system division, both have a positive influence on the acceptance of EMDSS by that agency. Conclusions: Contrary to expectations, the level of local collaborative planning efforts, the perceived level of threat, and number of disaster declarations for the county did not influence the use of these sophisticated EMDSS. To ensure use of such technology for effective emergency management, more funding to offer specialized training in the use of DSS is required in those agencies that do not have in-house GIS specialists. Key words: technology in emergency management, WebEOC, E-team, GIS in emergency management, decision-support systems in emergency management, technology acceptance DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0263


Article
Risk management and disaster recovery planning for online libraries
Ray Uzwyshyn, PhD, MLIS, MBA
November/December 2015; pages 552-556

Abstract
This article presents an overview of risk management and disaster recovery planning for online libraries. It is suitable for a broad audience interested in online libraries and research centers in universities and colleges. It outlines risk mitigation strategies, and disaster recover planning for online resource-centered information systems. Key words: online libraries, disaster recovery, risk management, digital libraries, online information centers, information systems DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0264


Article
Planning for partnerships: Maximizing surge capacity resources through service learning
Lavonne M. Adams, PhD, RN, CCRN; Paula K. Reams, PhD, RN, CNE, LMT, FNP-C; Sharon B. Canclini, MS, APHN-BC, FCN, CNE
November/December 2015; pages 557-564

Abstract
Infectious disease outbreaks and natural or human-caused disasters can strain the community's surge capacity through sudden demand on healthcare activities. Collaborative partnerships between communities and schools of nursing have the potential to maximize resource availability to meet community needs following a disaster. This article explores how communities can work with schools of nursing to enhance surge capacity through systems thinking, integrated planning, and cooperative efforts. Key words: surge capacity, service learning, emergency preparedness planning, schools of nursing, nursing students DOI:10.5055/jem.2015.0265