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Journal of Emergency Management
January/February 2014, Volume 12
, Number 1


Article
Emergency managers as community change agents: An expanded vision of the profession
Thomas E. Drabek, PhD
January/February 2014; pages 9-20

Abstract
Reflecting the historical evolution of attack preparedness, technological failures, and so-called natural disaster events, the profession of emergency management confronts new challenges today. In part, these reflect important cultural differences among stakeholder groups, especially local emergency managers, homeland security personnel, and those focused on public health threats and business continuity. An expanded and more strategic vision of the profession is required wherein fundamental assumption sets are placed into broader contexts. Contrary to the drift experienced in the US during the past decade, a major paradigm shift is required reflecting new orientations and program priorities. Key words: emergency management, community change agent, history of emergency management DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0158


Article
Resilient campuses: Leveraging resources among small- and moderate-sized institutions of higher education
Rebekah Green, PhD
January/February 2014; pages 21-30

Abstract
Universities and colleges provide students with an opportunity to grow personally and professionally through a structured series of learning experiences. Yet disasters can interrupt traditional place-based education and prove to be intractable policy problems. The challenges of developing robust plans and drilling them extensively are most pronounced among smaller public colleges and universities. This article describes how three small- to moderate-sized higher education institutions formed a consortium to better prepare for emergencies, despite limited resources. Together the institutions built common templates, hired joint staff, and created a suit of joint exercises appropriate for their small size and campus-specific needs. In the process, they shared unique perspectives that improved resilience across the institutions. Key words: emergency planning, scale, collaboration, higher education DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0159


Article
Leadership, collaboration, and effective training principles and practices from a decade of training by a center for public health preparedness
William Michael Reid, PhD, MBA; Lisa M. Brown, PhD; Danielle C. Landis, PhD, MPH
January/February 2014; pages 31-44

Abstract
Objective: To review a decade's experience of a Centers for Disease Control and Preparedness (CDC) funded Center for Public Health Preparedness (hereafter referred to as the Center) and to identify interventions that led to surmounting serious obstacles to achieving the Center's CDC-mandated goals and objectives. The Center's purpose was to train the public health workforce to protect the population from bioterrorism, infectious diseases, and emerging public health threats. Design: This case study used the concepts of the judgment process as developed by Noel Tichy and Warren Bennis to describe the experiences and actions of the Center's leaders. Center staff used public health principles of collaboration, the use of relevant science, and professional training principles in developing and delivering training in epidemiology, behavioral health, crisis leadership, and other fields through distance learning and on-site methods. Setting: The study's primary focus was on training in Florida, although the program's reach was national and international. Participants: Preparedness training was provided to approximately 10,000 public health officials, primarily drawn from Florida. Main outcome measure(s): This is a descriptive study of the Center's activities. The interventions were the steps taken by Center leadership to accomplish the federal and state goals of the program, despite meeting major challenges. The outcome measures were degrees of success, as measured by federal and state officials and other indicators, in delivering high quality training that met CDC and state goals. Results: The Center delivered trainings in fields determined to be needed in Florida and nationally. Participant and observer evaluations were strongly positive. Nationally published papers and presentations contributed to the training evidence base. The Florida Department of Health incorporated the trainings into Florida's mandatory training for Incident Command strike teams. The leaders of the Center and the Florida Department of Health developed a formal statement of principles to guide the training. These could be useful to other training organizations. Conclusions: The study illustrates the value of the Tichy and Bennis judgment process framework to describe actions of the Center leadership's successful effort to overcome system obstacles and provide high quality training to public health workers. The framework can be used by leaders in other organizations to increase their ability to make good judgments. Key words: public health preparedness, preparedness training, public health workforce development DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0160


Article
Professional responsibilities versus familial responsibilities: An examination of role conflict among first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster
Terri Adams, PhD; Mila Turner, MA
January/February 2014; pages 45-54

Abstract
In the event of a human-caused or natural disaster, the police are essential front-line first responders. The ability of police departments to provide adequate services is contingent upon critical response personnel working and functioning in an efficient manner. Currently, it is assumed that first responders will continue to work in the event of a disaster, even if they are personally impacted by the disaster to which they are expected to respond. This study examines role conflict among police officers who served as first responders during the Hurricane Katrina disaster. Key words: first responders, disaster, role conflict DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0161


Article
Public health-specific personal disaster preparedness training: An academic-practice collaboration
Sivan Kohn, MPH; Natalie Semon, MSEd; Haley K. Hedlin, PhD; Carol B. Thompson, MS, MBA; Felicity Marum, MHS; Sebra Jenkins, RN; Catherine C. Slemp, MD, MPH; Daniel J. Barnett, MD, MPH
January/February 2014; pages 55-73

Abstract
Objectives: To measure the following three relevant outcomes of a personal preparedness curriculum for public health workers: 1) the extent of change (increase) in knowledge about personal preparedness activities and knowledge about tools for conducting personal preparedness activities; 2) the extent of change (increase) in preparedness activities performed post-training and/or confidence in conducting these tasks; and 3) an understanding of how to improve levels of personal preparedness using the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) framework. Design: Cross-sectional preinterventional and postinterventional survey using a convenience sample. Setting: During 2010, three face-to-face workshops were conducted in three locations in West Virginia. Participants: One hundred thirty-one participants (baseline survey); 69 participants (1-year resurvey)—representing West Virginia local health department (LHD) and State Health Department employees. Interventions: A 3-hour interactive, public health-specific, face-to-face workshop on personal disaster preparedness. Main outcome measure(s): Change in 1) knowledge about, and tools for, personal preparedness activities; 2) preparedness activities performed post-training and/or confidence in conducting these activities; and 3) the relationship of EPPM categories to personal preparedness activities. Results: One year postworkshop, 77 percent of respondents reported having personal emergency kits (40 percent at baseline) and 67 percent reported having preparedness plans (38 percent at baseline) suggesting some participants assembled supply kits and plans postworkshop. Within the context of EPPM, respondents in high-threat categories agreed more often than respondents in low-threat categories that severe personal impacts were likely to result from a moderate flood. Compared to respondents categorized as low efficacy, respondents in high-efficacy categories perceived confidence in their knowledge and an impact of their response on their job success at higher rates. Conclusions: Personal disaster preparedness trainings for the LHD workforce can yield gains in relevant preparedness behaviors and attitudes but may require longitudinal reinforcement. The EPPM can offer a useful threat and efficacy-based lens to understand relevant perceptions surrounding personal disaster preparedness behaviors among LHD employees. Key words: disaster, personal, preparedness, public health, Extended Parallel Process Model DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0162


Article
Leadership success within disaster restoration projects
Randy R. Rapp, DMgt; Bassam Baroudi, DPM
January/February 2014; pages 75-81

Abstract
Successful project managers draw their performance from essential leadership traits, as guided by their core values. Within disaster recovery, contractors who mitigate, repair, and reconstruct the built environment are often faced with challenges exceeding the norm. The effective leader is commonly expected to consider stakeholder motivations within distressing situations as well as other external and environmental factors when seeking to lead the project team to successful outcomes. This research is most concerned with leadership within the context of disaster restoration of the built environment. Its stimulus comes from the Restoration Industry Association (RIA)’s efforts to highlight leadership traits and core values for its Certified Restorer Body of Knowledge but would be of value to others associated with disaster recovery operations. Among organizations whose membership includes thousands of practitioners who restore and reconstruct the built environment after disasters, the RIA is the only one yet to formally and substantially research which core values and leader traits are deemed critical for the success of efforts to manage the means and methods applied on recovery job sites. Forty-six seasoned disaster restoration industry project professionals voluntarily responded to a survey questionnaire that sought their opinions about the traits and core values that they consider most important for successful disaster restoration project leadership. The most important leader traits were effective communication, professional competence, and leadership by example. The most important restoration industry values were integrity, compassion, and trustworthiness. The recognized imperative of compassion was unexpected in light of stereotypes often associated with construction-related contractors. This and other findings permit disaster response and recovery stakeholders to better understand qualities they should wish to see in leaders of contractor organizations, which they hire to restore and reconstruct the built environment after catastrophic events. Key words: disaster restoration, project management, leadership DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0163


Article
Overview of the critical disaster management challenges faced during Van 2011 earthquakes
Mert Tolon, PhD; Ufuk Yazgan, PhD; Derin N. Ural, PhD; Kay C. Goss, PhD, CEM
January/February 2014; pages 82-96

Abstract
On October 23, 2011, a M7.2 earthquake caused damage in a widespread area in the Van province located in eastern Turkey. This strong earthquake was followed by a M5.7 earthquake on November 9, 2011. This sequence of damaging earthquakes led to 644 fatalities. The management during and after these earthquake disaster imposed many critical challenges. In this article, an overview of these challenges is presented based on the observations by the authors in the aftermath of this disaster. This article presents the characteristics of 2011 Van earthquakes. Afterward, the key information related to the four main phases (ie, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery) of the disaster in Van is presented. The potential strategies that can be taken to improve the disaster management practice are identified, and a set of recommendations are proposed to improve the existing situation. Key words: Van earthquake, emergency management, preparedness, mitigation, response, recovery DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0164

Journal of Emergency Management
March/April 2014, Volume 12
, Number 2


Article
Planning for disaster resilience in rural, remote, and coastal communities: Moving from thought to action
Brenda L. Murphy, PhD; Gregory S. Anderson, PhD; Ron Bowles, PhD; Robin S. Cox, PhD
March/April 2014; pages 105-120

Abstract
Disaster resilience is the cornerstone of effective emergency management across all phases of a disaster from preparedness through response and recovery. To support community resilience planning in the Rural Disaster Resilience Project (RDRP) Planning Framework, a print-based version of the guide book and a suite of resilience planning tools were field tested in three communities representing different regions and geographies within Canada. The results provide a cross-case study analysis from which lessons learned can be extracted. The authors demonstrate that by encouraging resilience thinking and proactive planning even very small rural communities can harness their inherent strengths and resources to enhance their own disaster resilience, as undertaking the resilience planning process was as important as the outcomes.The resilience enhancement planning process must be flexible enough to allow each community to act independently to meet their own needs. The field sites demonstrate that any motivated group of individuals, representing a neighborhood or some larger area could undertake a resilience initiative, especially with the assistance of a bridging organization or tool such as the RDRP Planning Framework. Key words: disaster planning, emergency management, community-based DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0165


Article
Shelter-in-place and mental health: An analogue study of well-being and distress
Stephanie F. Dailey, EdD; David Kaplan, PhD
March/April 2014; pages 121-131

Abstract
Based on the disaster mental health literature and research on quarantine, confinement, social distancing, and isolation, considerable evidence exists which supports the idea that individuals who shelter-in-place (SIP) may experience adverse emotional and/or mental-health responses. Objective: This study investigated the impact of a long-term (48-hour) SIP simulation on mental health during a “dirty bomb” detonation. Design/participants: Participants (n = 73) completed the Mental Health Inventory (MHI; Veit and Ware, 1983) and a self-report questionnaire on current functioning. Results: Sheltering-in-place did not have adverse effects on mental health although supplemental analysis indicated that groups that are cohesive have an easier time. Qualitative observations also provided a significant amount of information regarding group dynamics, attrition, and cognitive functioning. Conclusions: The results of this study provide evidence to emergency management professionals that SIP is viable disaster response strategy that does not adversely impact mental health provided group cohesion is high. The findings also have implications regarding public messaging and outreach initiatives regarding the emotional and physical safety of SIP. Key words: shelter-in-place, mental health, disaster simulation, contamination disasters DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0166


Article
Use of mock media in emergency management exercises: the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program experience
Ken Lerner, JD; Michael Meshenberg, MCP
March/April 2014; pages 133-139

Abstract
Disasters of any kind attract significant attention from news media, and media play an important role in disaster response. In a US government program for hazardous materials preparedness, risk communication functions were incorporated into planning and are demonstrated during response exercises. To provide the best training and most realistic play, exercise controllers play the role of news media reporters—mock media—during these exercises. They attend news conferences, interview exercise players in the field, and make calls to participants. They produce news stories including television reports, newspaper articles, radio spots, blog entries, and social media messages. This allows exercise players to experience how their actions and statements would be represented in the media, more effectively mimicking the environment of a real event. Key words: public information, media, exercise DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0167


Article
Pediatric disaster triage education and skills assessment: A coalition approach
Katherine Kenningham, MD; Kathryn Koelemay, MD, MPH; Mary A. King, MD, MPH
March/April 2014; pages 141-151

Abstract
Objective: This study aims to 1) demonstrate one method of pediatric disaster preparedness education using a regional disaster coalition organized workshop and 2) evaluate factors reflecting the greatest shortfall in pediatric mass casualty incident (MCI) triage skills in a varied population of medical providers in King County,WA. Design: Educational intervention and cross-sectional survey. Setting: Pediatric disaster preparedness conference created de novo and offered by the King County Healthcare Coalition, with didactic sessions and workshops including a scored mock pediatric MCI triage. Participants: Ninety-eight providers from throughout the King County, WA, region selected by their own institutions following invitation to participate, with 88 completing exit surveys. Interventions: Didactic lectures regarding pediatric MCI triage followed by scored exercises. Main outcome measures: Mock triage scores were analyzed and compared according to participant characteristics and workplace environment. Results: A half-day regional pediatric disaster preparedness educational conference convened in September 2011 by the King County Healthcare Coalition in partnership with regional pediatric experts was so effective and well-received that it has been rescheduled yearly (2012 and 2013) and has expanded to three Washington State venues sponsored by the Washington State Department of Health. Emergency department (ED) or intensive care unit (ICU) employment and regular exposure to pediatric patients best predicted higher mock pediatric MCI triage scores (ED/ICU 80 percent vs non-ED/ICU 73 percent, p = 0.026; regular pediatric exposure 80 percent vs less exposure 77 percent, p = 0.038, respectively). Pediatric Advanced Life Support training was not found to be associated with improved triage performance, and mock patients whose injuries were not immediately life threatening tended to be over-triaged (observed trend). Conclusions: A regional coalition can effectively organize member hospitals and provide education for focused populations using specialty experts such as pediatricians. Providers working in higher acuity environments and those with regular pediatric patient exposure perform better mock pediatric MCI triage than their counterparts after just-in-time training. Pediatric MCI patients with less than life-threatening injuries tended to be over-triaged. Key words: disasters, pediatric MCI triage, provider performance DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0168


Article
Coastal emergency managers’ preferences for storm surge forecast communication
Betty Hearn Morrow, PhD; Jeffrey K. Lazo, PhD
March/April 2014; pages 153-160

Abstract
Storm surge, the most deadly hazard associated with tropical and extratropical cyclones, is the basis for most evacuation decisions by authorities. One factor believed to be associated with evacuation noncompliance is a lack of understanding of storm surge. To address this problem, federal agencies responsible for cyclone forecasts are seeking more effective ways of communicating storm surge threat. To inform this process, they are engaging various partners in the forecast and warning process.This project focuses on emergency managers. Fifty-three emergency managers (EMs) from the Gulf and lower Atlantic coasts were surveyed to elicit their experience with, sources of, and preferences for storm surge information. The emergency managers—who are well seasoned in hurricane response and generally rate the surge risk in their coastal areas above average or extremely high—listed storm surge as their major concern with respect to hurricanes. They reported a general lack of public awareness about surge. Overall they support new ways to convey the potential danger to the public, including the issuance of separate storm surge watches and warnings, and the expression of surge heights using feet above ground level. These EMs would like more maps, graphics, and visual materials for use in communicating with the public. An important concern is the timing of surge forecasts—whether they receive them early enough to be useful in their evacuation decisions. Key words: storm surge, communication, hurricane DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0169


Article
Comparison of high-volume air sampling equipment for viral aerosol sampling during emergency response
Casey Cooper, MS, MBA, CIH; Jeremy Slagley, PhD, CIH, CSP; James Lohaus Jr, PhD; Elizabeth Escamilla, MS; Christopher Bliss, BSc, MSc; Diana Semler, MSc; Daniel Felker, PhD; David Smith, PhD; Darrin Ott, PhD, CIH
March/April 2014; pages 161-170

Abstract
Objective: This study compared the performance of two high-volume bioaerosol air samplers for viable virus to an accepted standard low-volume sampler. In typical bioaerosol emergency response scenarios, high-volume sampling is essential for the low infective concentrations and large air volumes involved. Design: Two high-volume air samplers (XMX/2LMIL and DFU-1000) were evaluated alongside a low-volume sample (BioSampler). Low and high concentrations (9.3-93.2 agent containing particles per liter of air [ACPLA]) of male-specific coliphage 2 (MS2) virus were released into a 12 m3 aerosol test chamber and collected using the air samplers. The collection media from the samplers were then processed and viable virus was assessed via plaque assay. Setting: Aerosol test chamber. Subjects, participants: None. Interventions: Collection media and flow rate were modified for the XMX/2L-MIL sampler for viable analysis. Main outcome measures: Concentration estimates in units of plaque forming units per liter of air (PFU/liter) assessed by the samplers as compared to the levels inside the chamber as evaluated with a slit to agar plate in units of ACPLA. Comparison was made via one-way analysis of variance. Results: Both the XMX/2L-MIL and DFU-1000 achieved collection effectiveness equal to or greater than the low-volume air sampler for the evaluated MS2 concentrations. The XMX/2L-MIL reliably collected quantifiable low concentrations of MS2, but the DFU-1000 was unable to do so. Conclusions: For emergency response to suspected bioaerosols, the evaluated high-volume samplers are as effective as the standard low-flow sampler and should be considered in conducting a health risk assessment. If low concentrations are expected, then high-flow samplers using liquid collection are preferred. Key words: bioaerosol sampling, bacteriophage, virtual impactor, bioterrorism DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0170


Article
Emergency management logistics must become emergency supply chain management
Richard R. Young, PhD, FCILT; Matthew R. Peterson, MBA, CSCP, SCOR-P
March/April 2014; pages 171-187

Abstract
Much has been written about how emergency management (EM) needs to look to the future regarding issues of resource management (monetary, human, and material). Constraints on budgets are ongoing and the staffing of emergency response activities is often difficult because volunteers have little to no training. The management of material resources has also been a challenge because 1) the categories of material vary by the type of emergency, 2) the necessary quantities of material are often not located near the ultimate point of need, and 3) the transportation assets are rarely available in the form and quantity required to allow timely and effective response. The logistics and resource management functions of EM (what we refer to as EM logistics) have been largely reactive, with little to no pre-event planning for potential demand. We applied the Supply Chain Operational Reference (SCOR) model to EM logistics in an effort to transform it to an integrated and scalable system of physical, information, and financial flows into which are woven the functions of sourcing, making, delivering, and returning, with an overarching planning function that transcends the organizational boundaries of participants. The result is emergency supply chain management, which embraces many more participants who share in a larger quantity of more useful information about the resources that need to be deployed when responding to and recovering from emergency events. Key words: emergency management logistics, emergency supply chain management, humanitarian logistics, disaster logistics management DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0171

Journal of Emergency Management
May/June 2014, Volume 12
, Number 3


Article
Implementation and modeling of a Regional Hub Reception Center during mass evacuation operations
Cliff Wojtalewicz, MS, CEM®, LTC ®; Adam Kirby, MS; J. Eric Dietz, PhD, PE, LTC ®
May/June 2014; pages 197-210

Abstract
When developing response plans in the aftermath of a catastrophic incident, jurisdictions often fail to conduct the necessary interdisciplinary planning needed to fully address the needs across jurisdictional borders. The Purdue Homeland Security Institute (PHSI) was selected by the City of Chicago Office of Emergency Management and Communications (OEMC) in 2010 to lead an effort to address planning across jurisdictional borders during mass evacuations following a catastrophic incident. Specifically, PHSI was chosen to lead the effort in developing a planning and implementation guide for standing up a conceptual Regional Hub Reception Center (RHRC). A major component within the mass evacuation and sheltering continuum, the RHRC is designed to provide evacuees with quick-response mass care and emergency assistance while their other needs are assessed and appropriate shelter locations are identified. The RHRC also provides a central location to leverage governmental, nongovernmental, and private sector resources and is the first point in the evacuation, mass care, and sheltering concept of operations where more comprehensive support (food, shelter, medical, psychological, household pet sheltering, reunification, etc) can be expected. PHSI undertook this lead role working within the Illinois-Indiana-Wisconsin (IL-IN-WI) Combined Statistical Area (CSA) as part of the US Department of Homeland Security Regional Catastrophic Planning Grant Program. Coordinating closely with the City of Chicago OEMC and IL-IN-WI CSA Regional Catastrophic Planning Team, PHSI lead the research effort using resource and capability data compiled from all 17 jurisdictions within the IL-IN-WI CSA and validated the RHRC concept using three tabletop exercises. Upon completion, the PHSI team published the RHRC planning guide complete with procedures and processes that define the roles and responsibilities of government, nongovernment organizations, and private sector for providing RHRC mass care functions and RHRC capability and capacity assessments. This article further examines the potential for using simulation modeling as a cost-effective means to rapidly evaluate any facility for potential use as a RHRC and to measure and maximize RHRC operational efficiency. Using AnyLogic simulation software, PHSI developed a first-ever model of a theoretical RHRC capable of simulating, measuring, and manipulating RHRC operations under specified conditions/ scenarios determined by the emergency management planner. Future simulation modeling research promises to promote the Whole Community Approach to response and recovery by reinforcing interdisciplinary planning, enhancing regional situational awareness, and improving overall jurisdictional coordination andsynchronization. Key words: mass evacuation, regional hub, mass care and sheltering, catastrophic planning, evacuees processing, discrete event modeling, simulation modeling, evacuation modeling, Purdue Homeland Security Institute (PHSI) DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0172


Article
Emergency planning for people with disabilities and others with access and functional needs to ensure inclusiveness
Elizabeth M. Webster, JD
May/June 2014; pages 211-218

Abstract
Recent investigations and litigation have prompted a shift in the way the field of emergency management plans for people with disabilities and others with access and functional needs. The purpose of this article is to aid readers in understanding some of the legal and practical requirements that may apply to jurisdictions' emergency preparedness programs to ensure the ability of plans, planning efforts, programs, and services to meet the needs of people with disabilities and others with access and functional needs. The cases of Communities Actively Living Independent and Free (CALIF) v. City of Los Angeles1 and Brooklyn Center for Independence of the Disabled v. Bloomberg2 will be used as case studies. Note that this is not intended nor should it be construed as legal advice. Keywords: people with disabilities and others with access and functional needs, emergency preparedness, preparedness programs, inclusive planning, Americans with Disabilities Act DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0173


Article
Emergency evacuation orders: Considerations and lessons from Hurricane Sandy
Patrick D. O’Neil, PhD, Capt. USN (ret)
May/June 2014; pages 219-227

Abstract
This article analyzes the problems surrounding the execution of emergency evacuation orders by evaluating Hurricane Sandy and the emergency actions taken by the State of New Jersey and the City of Atlantic City New Jersey. The analysis provides an overview of the legal authority granting emergency powers to governors and mayors to issue evacuation proclamations in addition to an evaluation of the New Jersey’s emergency evacuation mandate and subsequent compliance. The article concludes with provision of planning and preparedness recommendations for public managers facing similar hazards, including a recommendation for provision of emergency shelter contingencies within the threat zone in anticipation of citizen noncompliance evacuation orders. Key words: decision making, policy, evacuation, preparedness DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0174


Article
Emergency preparedness and intervention: Social work education needs in Israel
Patricia A. Findley, DrPH, MSW; Richard Isralowitz, PhD; Alexander Reznik, PhD
May/June 2014; pages 229-235

Abstract
Background: Emergency preparedness and response is gaining increasing global attention; numerous conditions contribute to disaster situations including acts of terror and war, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes. Internationally, social workers are among the first responders addressing needs of children, families, and others affected by traumatic events. Objectives: Assess the level of emergency preparedness and experience of intervening of social workers in Negev, Israel. Methods: Social workers (n _ 183) employed by public and nonprofit nongovernment organizations throughout the Negev, Israel, including population centers of Beer Sheva, Ashkelon, Ashdod, and Sderot were queried for this study regarding their experience and training in emergency preparedness and interventions. Results: Seventy-six percent of study participants had 10 years or less experience; and, the majority (56.1 percent) reported they treat trauma and/or post-traumatic stress disorder. Overall, the types of populations with whom the participants worked with were children and adolescents (65.5 percent), adults (59.6 percent), individuals with drug or alcohol dependence (30.1 percent), people with serious mental illness (27.9 percent), reporting sexual abuse (25.7 percent), those with physical disabilities (20.8 percent), and elderly (18.6 percent). Screening and referral were the most common services provided, especially by older, more experienced social workers who were more likely to have received training to provide disaster mental health intervention. Respondents reported disaster intervention training related to work with children and families to be most important. Conclusion: Further research should consider more targeted studies of on emergency preparedness policies for vulnerable populations, evaluation of implementation procedures, and training on both the professional and community levels among other issues. Key words: emergency preparedness, social work, Israel, disaster response DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0175


Article
Mobile phone use among Medical Reserve Corps coordinators and volunteers: An exploratory study
Amy Scheller, MPA; Megan Peck, MPH; Debra K. Olson, DNP, MPH, FAAOHN
May/June 2014; pages 237-243

Abstract
Objective: To better understand how mobile phones can be used during emergency response, this study identifies a) current mobile phone use among Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) volunteers and coordinators in their daily lives and during response; b) challenges for mobile phone use during response; and c) areas for capacity building. Design: In 2012, 459 MRC volunteers and coordinators responded to a 35-question survey conducted online through SurveyMonkey. Respondents were asked how they use their mobile phones in their daily lives and during response, and how they would like to use them during response. Frequencies were calculated using SurveyMonkey and Excel. Main outcome measures: Respondents reported frequent and varied mobile phone use in their daily lives, with 99 percent of respondents owning a phone, 82 percent texting, and 87 percent of smartphone owners using apps. Although 80 percent of respondents who had been deployed used mobile phones during response, use of sophisticated mobile phone features was low; only 10 percent accessed emergency preparedness apps and 23 percent browsed the Internet for emergency response information. Respondents indicated a desire to use more features during response, such as emergency preparedness apps (72 percent) and e-mail to send or receive response instructions (80 percent). Conclusion: Results indicate that given access to mobile technology and training, emergency responders would like to increase their mobile phone use during response. Implications of these findings show a need for organizations to improve their support of mobile phone use. Key words: emergency response communication, mobile phone app, Medical Reserve Corps, smartphones, mobile technology and training DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0176


Article
On the effectiveness of shelter-in-place as a measure to reduce harm from atmospheric releases
Shuming Du, PhD
May/June 2014; pages 245-250

Abstract
Shelter-in-place (SIP) is recommended by numerous entities as a measure to reduce harm in the event of a chemical accident or chemical attack taking place in the atmosphere. This article, based on solving mass conservation equation for indoor hazardous material, examines how effective SIP is to reduce the harm. It is shown that SIP can be effective when the shelter's air exchange rate is low and when the release duration is short. The effectiveness is strongly affected by the hazardous material itself: SIP is more effective for hazardous material with higher toxic load exponent. Another finding is that leaving the shelter promptly after the event can also be critical. Keywords: shelter-in-place, air exchange rate, toxic load, hazardous material, exposure assessment DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0177


Article
How do emergency managers use social media platforms?
DeeDee M. Bennett, PhD
May/June 2014; pages 251-256

Abstract
Social media platforms are increasingly becoming a useful tool for victims, humanitarians, volunteers, and the general public to communicate during disasters. Research has shown that there are multiple advantages to using social media and the applicability of these platforms crosses several different types of disasters (human-caused, natural, and terrorist) here in the United States and abroad. However, some emergency management agencies have been reluctant to use social media as one of their many communications tools. In this study, the usefulness of social media for emergency management was examined over a 30-day period following a series of tornadoes. Using an observational approach, the public posts disseminated from an emergency management agency were analyzed to determine how two social media platforms were used. The findings show how emergency management agencies could leverage the connectedness of social media to reach victims and make unlikely partnerships. Keywords: social media, emergency management, communications DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0178

Journal of Emergency Management
July/August 2014, Volume 12
, Number 4


Article
Emergency inventory management for disasters—A review
Eren Erman Ozguven, PhD; Kaan Ozbay, PhD
July/August 2014; pages 269-286

Abstract
There has been a recent surge in the publication of academic literature examining various aspects of emergency inventory management for disasters. This article contains a timely literature review of these studies, beginning with an exposition of the characteristics of storage and delivery options for emergency supplies, with a particular emphasis on the differences between emergency inventories and conventional inventory management. Using a novel classification scheme and a comprehensive search of the inventory-related literature, an overview of the emergency inventory management studies is also presented. Finally, based on this extensive review, a discussion is presented based on the critical issues and key findings related to the emergency inventory management field, and include suggestions for future research directions. Key words: disasters, humanitarian logistics, emergency operations, inventory control DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0179


Article
Simulation and optimization models for emergency medical systems planning
Andrea Bettinelli, PhD; Roberto Cordone, PhD; Federico Ficarelli, MSc; Giovanni Righini, PhD
July/August 2014; pages 287-301

Abstract
The authors address strategic planning problems for emergency medical systems (EMS). In particular, the three following critical decisions are considered: i) how many ambulances to deploy in a given territory at any given point in time, to meet the forecasted demand, yielding an appropriate response time; ii) when ambulances should be used for serving nonurgent requests and when they should better be kept idle for possible incoming urgent requests; iii) how to define an optimal mix of contracts for renting ambulances from private associations to meet the forecasted demand at minimum cost. In particular, analytical models for decision support, based on queuing theory, discrete-event simulation, and integer linear programming were presented. Computational experiments have been done on real data from the city of Milan, Italy. Key words: queuing theory, simulation, mathematical programming, emergency medical systems DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0180


Article
Stress and coping in wildland firefighting dispatchers
Charles G. Palmer, EdD
July/August 2014; pages 303-314

Abstract
Objective: To gain a better understanding of the stressors faced by wildland firefighting dispatchers and how they cope with it. Design: Qualitative method of phenomenology. Setting: Dispatch centers around the western United States. Subjects: Subjects were recruited via e-mail solicitation. Only currently employed wildland firefighting dispatchers with extensive dispatching experience were selected. Dispatchers included in this study were employed at the local (3), geographic (4), or national level (4). Eleven dispatchers in total were interviewed, six females and five males. Average experience level as a dispatcher was 14.2 years. Interventions: In-person interviews. Results: Three broad categories of stressors were revealed: balancing personal and professional lives, contending with job-related issues, and dealing with issues related to control. Four coping strategies also emerged: taking time off, exercising, providing a service to firefighters, and receiving support from others. Conclusions: In general, a complex and at times even a paradoxical relationship between the dispatchers interviewed and stress was noted. In other words, while subjects felt that the stressors experienced as a dispatcher had the ability to negatively affect their performance, they also believed that stress was beneficial at times. Future research is recommended to further our understanding of workplace stressors for wildland fire dispatchers, and how they cope with them. Key words: disaster management, emergency management, fire safety DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0181


Article
Assessing Reverse 911®: A case study of the 2007 San Diego wildfires
Tonya T. Neaves, ABD, MPPA; Stacey C. Mann, PhD; Laura B. Myers, PhD; Arthur G. Cosby, PhD
July/August 2014; pages 315-325

Abstract
In October 2007, 250,000 residents of San Diego County were forced to evacuate as wildfires burned 62 miles2 in 24 hours. In 2005, the Sheriff’s Department invested in Reverse 911® to contact residents upon emergencies. The system was used during this wildfire, and by the following midday, had made 394,915 calls. Shortly thereafter, 1,210 residents were surveyed to investigate the effectiveness of this technology. Findings reveal that 42 percent of respondents received their first warning from a Reverse 911® call while an additional 7 percent received the same call, but not as their first warning, as compared to all other methods used. Key words: Reverse 911®, warning, evacuation, wildfire, San Diego DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0182


Article
The role of information technology in emergency preparedness by local health departments: A literature review
Jonas Nguh, PhD, MSN, MHSA, RN
July/August 2014; pages 327-339

Abstract
Ever since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the federal government increased funding for emergency preparedness. However, the literature continues to document several areas of weaknesses in public health emergency management by local health departments (LHD). This literature review discusses the role of information technology (IT) for emergency preparedness by LHDs. The focus areas for this review include evaluating the strategic management of IT by LHD, evaluation of the adoption and implementation of IT in emergency management, and assessing LHD's capacity and capability for emergency preparedness. Findings reveal that LHDs face significant challenges in the utilization of IT for emergency preparedness purposes such as weak capacity and capabilities, lack of structured planning and program implementation, and limited resources. Implications from this review include the development of “best practices,” increased funding for IT infrastructure, and the establishment of strategic management framework for IT initiatives. Keywords: local health departments, emergency preparedness, emergency management, information technology, strategic management DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0183

Journal of Emergency Management
September/October 2014, Volume 12
, Number 5


Article
Sustainability and the local emergency manager
Jessica Jensen, PhD; Regine Laurence Chauvet, MS
September/October 2014; pages 353-366

Abstract
Objective: The objective of this study was to explore how local county emergency managers conceptualize sustainability and apply the concept within their jobs. Design: Qualitative, semistructured telephone and face-to-face interviews were used to collect data from a purposive and convenience sample of local county emergency managers. Setting: Interviews were conducted with Florida and North Dakota emergency managers. Subjects, Participants: Twenty-five local county emergency managers participated in this study. Results: The study demonstrated that there is a lack of definitional clarity in emergency manager conceptualizations of sustainability. Nevertheless, emergency managers apply the concept to their jobs in important ways. Conclusions: Emergency management has the opportunity to further define its role vis-à-vis sustainability and how it does so will have implications for the communities it serves, the professionals who will be tasked with it, and the educators who will support the development of future generations of emergency management professionals. Key words: sustainability, recovery, mitigation, emergency management higher education, emergency management practice, planning DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0200


Article
Increasing access and support for emergency management higher education programs
Carol L. Cwiak, JD, PhD
September/October 2014; pages 367-377

Abstract
The number of emergency management higher education programs has grown dramatically since 1994 when the FEMA Higher Education Program was created to propagate and support such growth. Data collected annually since 2007 from emergency management higher education programs shows that these programs face some consistent challenges. These challenges were coupled with annual data on program access and support indicators via dimensional analysis to answer the questions: To what extent are the challenges linked to a lack of access or support? If there is linkage, what can be gleaned from these linkages that can help address the challenges through improving access and support? The analysis showed that lack of access to funding and resources, and lack of support from partner organizations, has an impact on emergency management higher education. Discussion of that impact is followed with detailed recommendations that are focused on strengthening both internal and external access and support relationships for emergency management higher education programs. Key words: emergency management higher education, academic challenges, FEMA Higher Education Program, partnerships DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0201


Article
Quantifying effectiveness in emergency management
John Michael Weaver, DPA
September/October 2014; pages 378-382

Abstract
This study looked at the relationship between the Departments of Defense (DOD) and Homeland Security (DHS). Moreover, it reviewed the interface between their two subordinate organizations (Northern Command under DOD and the Federal Emergency Management Agency under DHS) with primacy over domestic disasters. Understanding the importance of intergovernmental relations (IGRs), the article dissected the interrelatedness of these organizations regarding hurricanes and the subsequent involvement of federal preparation and response efforts. The informal networked relationships were evaluated using regression analysis focusing on secondary sources of data and several variables. The vitality of collaborative networks is grounded in literature and has been espoused by Waugh and Streib1 in the world of emergency management; this study expanded on their premise. Key words: DHS, NORTHCOM, DOD, FEMA, hurricane DOI: 10.5055/jem.2014.0202


Article
Building a geospatial data model for humanitarian response
Nuala M. Cowan, DSc, MA, BA
September/October 2014; pages 383-390

Abstract
Objective: An effectual emergency response effort is contingent upon the quality and timeliness of information provided to both the decision making and coordinating functions; conditions that are hard to guarantee in the urgent climate of the response effort. The purpose of this paper is to present a validated Humanitarian Data Model (HDM) that can assist in the rapid assessment of disaster needs and subsequent decision making. Substandard, inconsistent information can lead to poorly informed decisions, and subsequently, inappropriate response activities. Here we present a novel, organized, and fluid information management workflow to be applied during the rapid assessment phase of an emergency response. A comprehensive, peer-reviewed geospatial data model not only directs the design of data collection tools but also allows for more systematic data collection and management, leading to improved analysis and response outcomes. Design: This research involved the development of a comprehensive geospatial data model to guide the collection, management and analysis of geographically referenced assessment information, for implementation at the rapid response phase of a disaster using a mobile data collection app based on key outcome parameters. A systematic review of literature and best practices was used to identify and prioritize the minimum essential data variables. Subjects: The data model was critiqued for variable content, structure, and usability by a group of subject matter experts in the fields of humanitarian information management and geographical information systems. Conclusions: Consensus found that the adoption of a standardized system of data collection, management, and processing, such as the data model presented here, could facilitate the collection and sharing of information between agencies with similar goals, facilitate the better coordination of efforts by unleashing the power of geographic information for humanitarian decision support. Key words: geospatial, data modeling, geographical information system, humanitarian, rapid assessment, information management DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0203


Article
Preparedness for epidemic disease or bioterrorism: Minimum cost planning for the location and staffing of urban point-of-dispensing centers
William M. Bowen, PhD; Jen-Yi Chen, PhD; Oya I. Tukel, PhD
September/October 2014; pages 391-406

Abstract
Urban health authorities in the United States have been charged with developing plans for providing the infrastructure necessary to dispense prophylactic medications to their populations in the case of epidemic disease outbreak or bioterrorist attack. However, no specific method for such plans has been prescribed. This article formulates and demonstrates the use of an integer programming technique for helping to solve a part of the dispensing problem faced by cities, namely that of providing the federally required infrastructure at minimum cost, using their limited time and resources. Specifically, the technique minimizes the number of point-of-dispensing (POD) centers while covering every resident in all the census tracts within the city's jurisdiction. It also determines the optimal staffing requirement in terms of the number of nurses at each POD. This article includes a demonstration of the model using real data from Cleveland, OH, a mid-sized US city. Examples are provided of data and computational results for a variety of input parameter values such as population throughput rate, POD capacities, and distance limitations. The technique can be readily adapted to a wide range of urban areas. Key words: urban emergency planning, bioterrorism, point-of-dispensing planning, infectious disease, biosecurity, integer programming DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0204


Article
Application of a plume model for decision makers’ situation awareness during an outdoor airborne HAZMAT release
Ronald G. Meris, BS, MBA; Joseph A. Barbera, MD
September/October 2014; pages 407-420

Abstract
In a large-scale outdoor, airborne, hazardous materials (HAZMAT) incident, such as ruptured chlorine rail cars during a train derailment, the local Incident Commanders and HAZMAT emergency responders must obtain accurate information quickly to assess the situation and act promptly and appropriately. HAZMAT responders must have a clear understanding of key information and how to integrate it into timely and effective decisions for action planning. This study examined the use of HAZMAT plume modeling as a decision support tool during incident action planning in this type of extreme HAZMAT incident. The concept of situation awareness as presented by Endsley's dynamic situation awareness model contains three levels: perception, comprehension, and projection. It was used to examine the actions of incident managers related to adequate data acquisition, current situational understanding, and accurate situation projection. Scientists and engineers have created software to simulate and predict HAZMAT plume behavior, the projected hazard impact areas, and the associated health effects. Incorporating the use of HAZMAT plume projection modeling into an incident action plan may be a complex process. The present analysis used a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodological approach and examined the use and limitations of a “HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle” process that can be integrated into the incident action planning cycle. HAZMAT response experts were interviewed using a computer-based simulation. One of the research conclusions indicated the “HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle” is a critical function so that an individual/team can be tasked with continually updating the hazard plume model with evolving data, promoting more accurate situation awareness. Key words: HAZMAT, hazardous materials response, incident accident plan, situation awareness, emergency response risk, plume model, emergency management DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0205

Journal of Emergency Management
November/December 2014, Volume 12
, Number 6


Article
Lessons learned from The Great East Japan Earthquake: The need for disaster preparedness in the area of disaster mental health for children
Shuei Kozu, MSW, MHA; Hiroaki Homma, MD
November/December 2014; pages 431-439

Abstract
The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 brought unprecedented challenges to individuals, families, and communities of the Tohoku region in Japan. Children are especially vulnerable to the postdisaster risk factors that impact their ability to heal. The destruction of the infrastructure by the disasters made it more challenging to reach out to children in an area where the stigma against mental illness is persistent. The authors share their experiences, what they heard from patients, and their reflections on lessons learned. The authors recommend the development of a coordinated mental health response system in preparation for the next disaster. Key words: disaster mental health, children, families, disaster preparedness, disaster response system DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0206


Article
Information and communication technology: Connecting the public and first responders during disasters
Michelle M. Buzzelli, MS, CHES; Paula Morgan, BA; Alexander G. Muschek, BA; Gavin Macgregor-Skinner, BVSc, MSc, MPH, MRCVS
November/December 2014; pages 441-447

Abstract
Lack of success in disaster recovery occurs for many reasons, with one predominant catalyst for catastrophic failure being flawed and inefficient communication systems. Increased occurrences of devastating environmental hazards and human-caused disasters will continue to promulgate throughout the United States and around the globe as a result of the continuous intensive urbanization forcing human population into more concentrated and interconnected societies. With the rapid evolutions in technology and the advent of Information and communication technology (ICT) interfaces such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, Myspace, and Smartphone technology, communication is no longer a unidirectional source of information traveling from the newsroom to the public. In the event of a disaster, time critical information can be exchanged to and from any person or organization simultaneously with the capability to receive feedback. A literature review of current information regarding the use of ICT as information infrastructures in disaster management during human-caused and natural disasters will be conducted. This article asserts that the integrated use of ICTs as multidirectional information sharing tools throughout the disaster cycle will increase a community's resiliency and supplement the capabilities of first responders and emergency management officials by providing real-time updates and information needed to assist and recover from a disaster. Keywords: ICT, disaster preparedness, emergency management, social media DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0207


Article
Problems of preparedness and its promotion in Germany
Henning Goetz Goersch, MA, PhD
November/December 2014; pages 450-456

Abstract
The official strategy in Germany to promote preparedness is the appliance of mass communication instruments to inform the population about hazards and protection measures as well as to influence the risk perception of people. This is thought to be an appropriate method to raise the level of preparedness. A research project running from 2005 to 2010 investigated central assumptions of the current promotion measures. The results show that a change of paradigm is urgently needed. Key words: preparedness, promotion of preparedness, theories of health promotion, civil protection, Germany DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0208


Article
Volunteers and professional rescue workers: Traumatization and adaptation after an avalanche disaster
Helga Arnfridur Haraldsdóttir, Cand Psych; Drifa Gudmundsdóttir, PhD; Eugenia Romano, MSc; Edda Björk Þórðardóttir, BA; Berglind Guðmundsdóttir, MSc; Ask Elklit, MSc
November/December 2014; pages 457-466

Abstract
Objective: To compare the degree of traumatization and adaptation in professional and volunteer rescue workers after two snow avalanches. Method: Questionnaires including demographic questions, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, the Rescue Workers Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale, and the Coping Styles Questionnaire were answered by rescue workers (n = 168). Results: In several areas, professional rescuers had stronger fears than volunteers, all the same, volunteers were significantly more anxious and met criteria for PTSD caseness more often than professionals. Conclusion: The findings suggest that voluntary rescue workers suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms more often than professionals following demanding rescue missions. Key words: volunteers, professional rescue workers, disaster, post-traumatic stress disorder, adaptation DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0209


Article
Category change and risk perception: Hurricane Irene and coastal North Carolina
William Pace, MA; Burrell Montz, PhD
November/December 2014; pages 467-477

Abstract
Objective: This research explores variations in risk perception with location and changes in the intensity of a hurricane (Hurricane Irene in 2011). Design: Surveys were mailed to a random sample of 601 year-round residents of two counties in coastal North Carolina. Within each county, areas were chosen based on their risk with respect to wind or storm surge; an equal number of surveys were sent to each area. A 31 percent return rate was achieved. Setting: Dare County on the Outer Banks of North Carolina and Beaufort County on the Inner Banks were chosen as study areas because of the nature and extent of damage incurred from Hurricane Irene. Main Outcome Measure: Because Hurricane Irene was downgraded before it made landfall in North Carolina, it was anticipated that residents would perceive themselves to be at less risk to hurricane-related hazards with differences related to location on the Atlantic Ocean or on the Sound. Results: Little difference was found between the Inner and Outer Banks locations such that all reported the change in intensity influenced their perceptions by reducing the sense of risk. This varied somewhat, but not significantly, by hazard area. Conclusions: The downgrading of Hurricane Irene created a false sense of security. Residents of the study area believed themselves to be at low risk and were unlikely to evacuate, despite warnings. The long duration of the event, however, led to significant damages, surprising many, and suggesting the need to emphasize impacts in messaging, no matter the storm intensity. Key words: risk perception, hurricane intensity, location, hurricane hazards DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0210


Article
Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations
Susan L. Murray, PhD; Emrah Harputlu, MS; Ray A. Mentzer, PhD; M. Sam Mannan, PhD
November/December 2014; pages 479-486

Abstract
Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations to determine performance coefficients. These coefficients represent the decrease in time required for various basic motions in emergency situations and were used to model an emergency response. This approach will make hazardous operations requiring operator response, alarm management, and evacuation processes easier to design and predict. An application of this methodology is included in the article. The time required for an emergency response was roughly a one-third faster than for a normal response time. Key words: emergency response, process safety operations, MODAPTS, reaction time standards DOI:10.5055/jem.2014.0211