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Journal of Emergency Management
January/February 2013, Volume 11
, Number 1


Article
Estimating medically fragile population in storm surge zones: A geographic information system application
James L. Wilson, PhD; Ruth Little, MPH; Lloyd Novick, MD, MPH
January/February 2013; pages 9-24

Abstract
Objective: To develop a simple, cost-effective method for determining the size and geographic distribution of medically fragile (MF) individuals at risk from tropical storm surges for use by emergency management planners. Design: The study used Geographic Information System (GIS) spatially referenced layers based on secondary data sources from both state and federal levels. Setting: The study setting included the eastern North Carolina coastal counties that would be affected by tropical storm surges. Subjects: The initial MF population was extrapolated from national estimates for five conditions and then applied to US Census block population. These conditions included insulin dependent diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, end stage renal disease, and patients receiving long-term oxygen treatment. Main outcomes: The main outcome of this study was a series of local and regional maps that portrayed the geographic distribution and estimated counts of potentially at-risk MF population from a tropical storm surge scenario. Conclusions: Maps depicting the geographic distribution and potential numbers of MF individuals are important information for planning and preparedness in emergency management and potentially engaging the public. Key words: GIS, medically fragile population, storm surge hazards mapping DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0124


Article
Nurses’ willingness and readiness to report for duty in a disaster
Olivia Wai Man Fung, DHSc, MPH, BN, RN; Alice Yuen Loke, PhD, MN, BSN, RN
January/February 2013; pages 25-37

Abstract
Inadequate healthcare workforce during a disaster affects the survival and health outcome of victims. During disaster strikes, nurses may face a dilemma regarding whether or not to report for duty, facing professional duty and their personal and/or family safety that may be at stake. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. This study seeks for a better understanding of the factors affecting nurses’ willingness and readiness to report for duty in a disaster. A total of 269 currently practicing registered nurses completed the questionnaire. Results showed that only 68.7 percent and 53.2 percent of nurses were willing to report to work during a disaster. Male nurses were more likely to report to work than females during disaster (p = 0.007) and infection outbreak (p = 0.002) situations. Nurses with young children were less likely to report to work during an infectious disease outbreak (34.5 percent vs 55.4 percent, p = 0.033). It is concluded that about one-third of nurses indicated that they would not report to work when a disaster strikes. This raises a warning signal for healthcare managers that they need to plan ahead to maintain an adequate workforce when disasters strike. Managers are urged to do more to understand the factors leading to nurses’ unwillingness to report to work and to undertake realistic staffing planning to cope with the extra demand. Key words: disaster nursing management, readiness to work, willingness to report for duty, Hong Kong nurses, workforce management DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0125


Article
First responders and psychological first aid
Jordan Pekevski, PhD
January/February 2013; pages 39-48

Abstract
Emergencies and disasters are common and occur on a daily basis. Although most survivors will not experience any long-term negative mental health effects, some will. First responders tend to have first contact with the survivors and, therefore, are in a position to provide needed mental health assistance to survivors. Psychological first aid (PFA) is an evidence-informed approach to providing support to survivors following a serious crisis event, and it aims to reduce the initial distress of the traumatic event and to promote adaptive functioning and coping. PFA has gained a great deal of attention lately, likely due to the fact that it is easy to provide. This article discusses the potential negative effects of emergencies and disasters on mental health, provides a description of PFA and discusses its application, and provides an overview of the research base of PFA and a discussion on the need for future research. Key words: first responders, psychological first aid, mental health DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0126


Article
An evaluation of security measures implemented to address physical threats to water infrastructure in the state of Mississippi
Jason R. Barrett, PhD Candidate; P. Edward French, PhD
January/February 2013; pages 49-58

Abstract
The events of September 11, 2001, increased and intensified domestic preparedness efforts in the United States against terrorism and other threats. The heightened focus on protecting this nation’s critical infrastructure included legislation requiring implementation of extensive new security measures to better defend water supply systems against physical, chemical/ biological, and cyber attacks. In response, municipal officials have implemented numerous safeguards to reduce the vulnerability of these systems to purposeful intrusions including ongoing vulnerability assessments, extensive personnel training, and highly detailed emergency response and communication plans. This study evaluates fiscal year 2010 annual compliance assessments of public water systems with security measures that were implemented by Mississippi’s Department of Health as a response to federal requirements to address these potential terrorist threats to water distribution systems. The results show that 20 percent of the water systems in this state had at least one security violation on their 2010 Capacity Development Assessment, and continued perseverance from local governments is needed to enhance the resiliency and robustness of these systems against physical threats. Key words: emergency management, security measures, water systems DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0127


Article
Approaches to emergency management teaching at the master’s level
David Alexander, PhD
January/February 2013; pages 59-72

Abstract
Training and education enable emergency managers to deal with complex situations, create durable networks of people with appropriate expertise, and ensure that knowledge is utilized to improve resilience in the face of disaster risk. Although there is a discrete literature on emergency management training, few attempts have been made to create an overview that discusses the key issues and proposes a standardized approach. This article examines the nature of training and education in emergency and disaster management. It analyzes the composition and requirements of courses at the master’s degree level, which is considered to be the most appropriate tier for in-depth instruction in this field. This article defines “training” and “education” in the context of emergency management courses. It reviews the developing profile of the emergency manager in the light of training requirements. This article examines the question of whether emergency management is a branch of management science or whether it is something distinct and separate. Attention is given to the composition of a core curriculum and to the most appropriate pedagogical forms of delivering it. The article reviews the arguments for and against standardization of the curriculum and describes some of the pedagogical methods for delivering courses. Briefly, it considers the impact on training and education of new pedagogic methods based on information technology. It is concluded that the master’s level is particularly suited to emergency and crisis management education, as it enables students to complement the in-depth knowledge they acquired in their disciplinary first degrees with a broader synthetic approach at the postgraduate level. Some measures of standardization of course offerings are desirable, in favor of creating a core curriculum that will ensure that essential core knowledge is imparted. Education and training in this field should include problem-solving approaches that enable students to learn practical skills as well as theory. Key words: crisis management, emergency management, disaster management, higher education, master’s degree, training DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0128


Article
Have Maryland local health departments effectively put in place the information technology relevant to emergency preparedness?
Jonas Nguh, PhD, MSN, MHSA, RN
January/February 2013; pages 73-91

Abstract
Ever since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the federal government has increased funding for emergency preparedness. However, the literature continues to document several areas of weaknesses in public health emergency management by local health departments (LHD). This lack of preparedness affects the entire public. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not Maryland LHDs have effectively put in place the information technology (IT) that is relevant for emergency preparedness. Base Firm-wide IT Infrastructure Services and the Feeny/Willcocks Framework for Core IS Capabilities are the two conceptual frameworks used in this study. This qualitative study used the survey method and the data were analyzed through content analysis. The results revealed that utilization, practice, and performance of IT by Maryland LHDs are not efficient or effective. Recommendations included the development of “best practices,” increased funding for IT infrastructure and the establishment of strategic management framework for IT initiatives. Implications for positive social change include the development of recommendations to enhance emergency preparedness practice, and advancement of knowledge so as to facilitate the functions, and duties of health departments in emergency preparedness operations. Key words: public health preparedness, emergency management, local health departments DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0129

Journal of Emergency Management
March/April 2013, Volume 11
, Number 2


Article
Applying a community resilience framework to examine household emergency planning and exposure-reducing behavior among residents of Louisiana’s industrial corridor
Margaret A. Reams, PhD; Nina S. N. Lam, PhD; Tabitha M. Cale, PhD; Corrinthia M. Hinton, MS
March/April 2013; pages 107-120

Abstract
Residents facing environmental hazards can take steps to reduce their exposure risks, and these actions may be considered adaptations that can enhance the overall resilience of communities. Applying concepts from social-ecological resilience theory, the authors examine emergency planning and exposure-reducing behaviors among residents of the upper Industrial Corridor of Louisiana and explore the extent to which the behaviors are associated with key theoretical influences on community resilience: exposure, vulnerability, and the “adaptive capacity” of residents. The behaviors of interest are adoption of a household emergency plan in the case of acute exposure events (like chemical spills), and limiting outdoor activities in response to Air Quality Index reports, thus potentially reducing chronic exposure risks. Statistical analyses indicate that adaptive behaviors are associated both with greater exposure to hazards and confidence in one’s knowledge and ability to reduce exposure risks. Thus, the study yields evidence that “adaptive capacity” is particularly relevant to understanding and encouraging household emergency planning. Residents who believe that they are well-informed about risk-reducing strategies, regardless of education or income, were found to be more likely to have adopted these measures. Evidence that knowledge and confidence levels are linked to adaptive behaviors is good news for those working in public education and outreach programs, as these are attitudes and skills that can be nurtured. While factors associated with exposure and vulnerability to hazards are difficult to change, knowledge of risk-reducing strategies and confidence in one’s abilities to reduce exposure risks can be improved through well-designed public education efforts. Key words: emergency planning, exposure reduction, adaptive behavior, environmental hazards, community resilience, risk exposure, socioeconomics, vulnerability DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0130


Article
Local hazard mitigation plans: A preliminary estimation of state-level completion from 2004 to 2009
Andrea M. Jackman, PhD; Mario G. Beruvides, PhD, PE
March/April 2013; pages 121-132

Abstract
According to the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 and subsequent federal policy, local governments are required to have a Hazard Mitigation Plan (HMP) written and approved by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to be eligible for federal mitigation assistance. This policy took effect on November 1, 2004. Using FEMA’s database of approved HMPs and US Census Bureau’s 2002 Survey of Local Governments, it is estimated that 3 years after the original deadline, 67 percent of the country’s active local governments were without an approved HMP. A follow-up examination in 2009 of the eight states with the lowest completion percentages did not indicate significant improvement following the initial study and revealed inconsistencies in plan completion data over time. The completion percentage varied greatly by state and did not appear to follow any expected pattern such as wealth or hazard vulnerability that might encourage prompt completion of a plan. Further, the results indicate that ~92 percent of the approved plans were completed by a multijurisdictional entity, which suggests single governments seldom complete and gain approval for plans. Based on these results, it is believed that state-level resolution is not adequate for explaining the variation of plan completion, and further study at the local level is warranted. Key words: mitigation, planning, states DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0131


Article
Comparison of ArcToolbox and Terrain Tiles processing procedures for inundation mapping in mountainous terrain
Andrew Darnell, MSCE, EIT; Richard Wise, MSCE, EIT; John Quaranta, PhD, PE
March/April 2013; pages 133-141

Abstract
Floodplain management consists of efforts to reduce flood damage to critical infrastructure and to protect the life and health of individuals from flooding. A major component of this effort is the monitoring of flood control structures such as dams because the potential failure of these structures may have catastrophic consequences. To prepare for these threats, engineers use inundation maps that illustrate the flood resulting from high river stages. To create the maps, the structure and river systems are modeled using engineering software programs, and hydrologic events are used to simulate the conditions leading to the failure of the structure. The output data are then exported to other software programs for the creation of inundation maps. Although the computer programs for this process have been established, the processing procedures vary and yield inconsistent results. Thus, these processing methods need to be examined to determine the functionality of each in floodplain management practices. The main goal of this article is to present the development of a more integrated, accurate, and precise graphical interface tool for interpretation by emergency managers and floodplain engineers. To accomplish this purpose, a potential dam failure was simulated and analyzed for a candidate river system using two processing methods: ArcToolbox and Terrain Tiles. The research involved performing a comparison of the outputs, which revealed that both procedures yielded similar inundations for single river reaches. However, the results indicated key differences when examining outputs for large river systems. On the basis of criteria involving the hydrologic accuracy and effects on infrastructure, the Terrain Tiles inundation surpassed the ArcToolbox inundation in terms of following topography and depicting flow rates and flood extents at confluences, bends, and tributary streams. Thus, the Terrain Tiles procedure is a more accurate representation of flood extents for use by floodplain engineers, hydrologists, geographers, and emergency managers. Key words: time-stepped inundation mapping, floodplain management, HEC-RAS, HEC-GeoRAS, ArcGIS, dam failure, hydrologic modeling, ArcToolbox, Terrain Tiles DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0132


Article
Self-reported training needs of emergency responders in disasters requiring military interface
Marian Levy, DrPH, RD; Robert W. Koch, DNSc, RN; Marla B. Royne, PhD
March/April 2013; pages 143-150

Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify perceived training needs of emergency responders to understand their needs to interface effectively with military operations for emergency response in the event of a disaster. Design: A Web-based survey with civilian medical practitioners and public health professionals was conducted to identify their perceptions of training needs related to civilian-military interface in disaster response. Setting: Lists of potential survey participants were obtained from local health departments and LISTSERVS in the two regions of interest: the South and the Midwest. Participants: Participants (n = 673) included health practitioners (medical, emergency care, and public health personnel) from hospitals, public service, and other nonprofit and governmental workers. Main outcome measure(s): Outcomes include perceived training needs, barriers to training, and preferred training formats and modalities. Results: Data indicate a perceived knowledge gap of civilian healthcare providers to interface effectively with military healthcare providers. Nearly three-fourths of respondents did not feel well-trained to work with the military during a disaster response or were unsure if they were well trained. Key areas for training include communication, chain of command during a disaster, and logistics of working with military personnel. Barriers to training include expense; ineffective, boring formats; and excessive time requirements. Most respondents favor interactive exercises rather than didactic training. Conclusions: Poor communication and lack of familiarity with military operations create barriers to effective coordinated response between military units and civilian responders in federal disaster response. Identifying gaps and training needs for these responders have far-reaching implications in public health’s ability to coordinate medical response as part of Emergency Support Function-8. Key words: emergency response, disaster planning, aeromedical evacuation DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0133


Article
Building community resilience to disasters through a community-based intervention: CART© applications
Rose L. Pfefferbaum, PhD, MPH; Betty Pfefferbaum, MD, JD; Richard L. Van Horn, PhD; Barbara R. Neas, PhD; J. Brian Houston, PhD
March/April 2013; pages 151-159

Abstract
The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART)©* is a community-driven, publicly available, theory-based, and evidence-informed community intervention designed to build community resilience to disasters and other adversities. Based on principles of participatory action research, CART applications contribute to community resilience by encouraging and supporting community participation and cooperation, communication, self-awareness, and critical reflection. The primary value of CART lies in its ability to stimulate analysis, collaboration, skill building, resource sharing, and purposeful action. In addition to generating community assessment data, CART can be used as a vehicle for delivering other interventions and creating sustainable capacity within communities. Two models for CART implementation are described. Key words: CART, community, community assessment, community resilience, disaster management, disaster preparedness, participatory action research, terrorism DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0134


Article
Analyzing after-action reports from Hurricanes Andrew and Katrina: Repeated, modified, and newly created recommendations
Claire Connolly Knox, PhD
March/April 2013; pages 160-168

Abstract
Thirteen years after Hurricane Andrew struck Homestead, FL, Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast of Mississippi, Alabama, and southeastern Louisiana. Along with all its destruction, the term “catastrophic” was redefined. This article extends the literature on these hurricanes by providing a macrolevel analysis of The Governor’s Disaster Planning and Response Review Committee Final Report from Hurricane Andrew and three federal after-action reports from Hurricane Katrina, as well as a cursory review of relevant literature. Results provide evidence that previous lessons have not been learned or institutionalized with many recommendations being repeated or modified. This article concludes with a discussion of these lessons, as well as new issues arising during Hurricane Katrina. Key words: Hurricane Andrew, Hurricane Katrina, after-action reports, communication, emergency management DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0135

Journal of Emergency Management
May/June 2013, Volume 11
, Number 3


Article
The role of gap analyses in energy assurance planning
Katherine Shea, JD
May/June 2013; pages 181-187

Abstract
Energy-related emergencies, such as power outages or interruptions to other energy supplies, can arise from a number of factors. Common causes include severe weather events—such as snowstorms, hurricanes, or summer storms with strong winds—as well as energy infrastructure that is overburdened, aging, or in need of repair. As past experience indicates, jurisdictions will continue to experience severe weather events, as well as confront infrastructure issues that make future power outages likely. As a result, state and local governments have turned to energy assurance planning, an energy-specific form of planning that helps jurisdictions prepare for and recover from energy emergencies. Energy assurance recognizes that power loss/disruption cannot be eradicated completely, but jurisdictions can mitigate the impact of power loss through effective planning. This article discusses the role of energy assurance planning and provides a description of what energy assurance means and why developing such plans at the state and local levels is important. In addition, this article discusses the role of statutory gap analyses in energy assurance planning and discusses how a gap analysis can be used by planners to identify trends and gaps in energy assurance. To provide context, a recently conducted statutory gap analysis analyzing national emergency backup power trends is provided as a case study. A summary of this project and key findings is included. Finally, this article briefly touches on legislation as an alternative to energy assurance planning, and provides summaries of recent legislative proposals introduced in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Key words: energy assurance, energy assurance plans, critical infrastructure, gap analysis, emergency power generation, backup power DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0136


Article
Emergency warning for people with disabilities
Kenneth Putkovich, BSEE, MSE
May/June 2013; pages 189-200

Abstract
The intent of this article is to assess the current state of Emergency Warning capabilities in the United States and make recommendations on what needs to be done to cost effectively establish a National Emergency Warning System to best serve the people of the United States, including those with disabilities. As part of this assessment, terminology will be defined, existing systems will be examined, critical needs and functions will be explained, and recommendations made for a system to deliver emergency messages to those people immediately at risk from natural and human-caused disasters in a timely and effective manner, regardless of location or situational circumstance. The assessment will include the needs and available technologies for delivering emergency warnings to people with disabilities, which are generally little understood, poorly addressed, and often ignored. Key words: emergency warnings, disability, emergency alert, weather radio DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0137


Article
Accounting for vulnerable populations in rural hazard mitigation plans: Results of a survey of emergency managers
Jennifer A. Horney, PhD, MPH; Mai Nguyen, PhD; John Cooper, PhD; Matthew Simon, MA; Kristen Ricchetti-Masterson, SPH; Shannon Grabich, MS; David Salvesen, PhD; Philip Berke, PhD
May/June 2013; pages 201-211

Abstract
Rural areas of the United States are uniquely vulnerable to the impacts of natural disasters. One possible way to mitigate vulnerability to disasters in rural communities is to have a high-quality hazard mitigation plan in place. To understand the resources available for hazard mitigation planning and determine how well hazard mitigation plans in rural counties meet the needs of vulnerable populations, we surveyed the lead planning or emergency management official responsible for hazard mitigation plans in 96 rural counties in eight states in the Southeastern United States. In most counties, emergency management was responsible for implementing the county’s hazard mitigation plan and the majority of counties had experienced a presidentially declared disaster in the last 5 years. Our research findings demonstrated that there were differences in subjective measures of vulnerability (as reported by survey respondents) and objective measures of vulnerability (as determined by US Census data). In addition, although few counties surveyed included outreach to vulnerable groups as a part of their hazard mitigation planning process, a majority felt that their hazard mitigation plan addressed the needs of vulnerable populations "well" or "very well." These differences could result in increased vulnerabilities in rural areas, particularly for certain vulnerable groups. Key words: rural, hazard mitigation planning, emergency managers, resiliency DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0138


Article
Communication, information seeking, and evacuation plans for a disaster using Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response in the Gulf Coast counties of Alabama and Mississippi, 2011
Danielle Buttke, DVM, PhD, MPH; Sara Vagi, PhD; Tesfaye Bayleyegn, MD; Amy Schnall, MPH; Melissa Morrison, MPH; Mardi Allen, PhD; Amy Wolkin, MSPH
May/June 2013; pages 213-223

Abstract
Objective: To determine communication, information seeking, and evacuation behaviors of coastal residents in a disaster-prone area. Design: A two-stage, probability sampling design to select 210 households in each assessment area was used. Data were analyzed using a weighted cluster analysis to report projected households for each assessment area. Setting: Public health services areas of coastal Alabama and Mississippi. Participants: Eligible respondents were 18 years of age or older, had lived in the community for at least 30 days, and were residents of the selected household. Main outcome measures: Evacuation propensity, primary communication forms, primary information forms, and special needs. Results: Most coastal residents would evacuate if recommended by public health authorities. Fewer residents had landlines (45.9-58.8 percent) compared to residents using cellular or mobile phone service only (84.3-95.8 percent), and these residents were significantly older compared to non-landline owning residents. Most residents own pets (61.9-70.1 percent). Conclusions: Our assessment suggests that the majority of Alabama and Mississippi coastal residents plan to evacuate during a disaster if recommended by public health authorities. However, public health authorities should strive to evaluate multiple forms of communication to disseminate disaster preparedness and response messages to reach all vulnerable residents, especially in situations where electric services might be compromised. Emergency preparedness personnel should also be prepared for a large pet population in the event of an evacuation. Key words: CASPER, emergency preparedness, evacuation, disaster, pet ownership DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0139


Article
The road less taken: Modularization and waterways as a domestic disaster response mechanism
Donald A. Donahue Jr, DHEd, MBA, FACHE; Stephen O. Cunnion, MD, PhD, MPH; Evelyn A. Godwin, MS, RN
May/June 2013; pages 225-236

Abstract
Preparedness scenarios project the need for significant healthcare surge capacity. Current planning draws heavily from the military model, leveraging deployable infrastructure to augment or replace extant capabilities. This approach would likely prove inadequate in a catastrophic disaster, as the military model relies on forewarning and an extended deployment cycle. Local equipping for surge capacity is prohibitively costly while movement of equipment can be subject to a single point of failure. Translational application of maritime logistical techniques and an ancient mode of transportation can provide a robust and customizable approach to disaster relief for greater than 90 percent of the American population. Key words: disaster response, surge capacity, medical care, humanitarian assistance DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0140


Article
Location selection criteria for a second data center or off-site storage of materials
Mitchell Cochran, MA; Paul Witman, PhD
May/June 2013; pages 237-248

Abstract
As organizations develop secondary data centers, it is critical that they be placed in locations that serve the organization yet do not have a shared risk with the primary data center. The organization needs to consider factors or guidelines which mitigate potential issues that could affect both the primary and secondary data center. It is impossible to eliminate all risk to a single data center but an organization needs to ensure that at least one data center remains operable. The article will propose that data centers be located 50 km or approximately 30 miles apart. The proposal is supported by evaluating earthquake intensity maps that will show that earthquakes damage drops to relatively safe levels after the 30 miles from the epicenter. The article will show that other environmental factors such as power, floods, fire, transportation, fire, and soil are also mitigated by a 30-mile separation guideline. Key words: data center location, criteria, earthquake intensity DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0141

Journal of Emergency Management
July/August 2013, Volume 11
, Number 4


Article
Optimization-based decision support to assist in logistics planning for hospital evacuations
Roger Glick, MS, MBA; Douglas R. Bish, PhD; Esra Agca, PhD©
July/August 2013; pages 261-270

Abstract
The evacuation of the hospital is a very complex process and evacuation planning is an important part of a hospital’s emergency management plan. There are numerous factors that affect the evacuation plan including the nature of threat, availability of resources and staff, the characteristics of the evacuee population, and risk to patients and staff. The safety and health of patients is of fundamental importance, but safely moving patients to alternative care facilities while under threat is a very challenging task. This article describes the logistical issues and complexities involved in planning and execution of hospital evacuations. Furthermore, this article provides examples of how optimization-based decision support tools can help evacuation planners to better plan for complex evacuations by providing real-world solutions to various evacuation scenarios. Key words: hospital evacuation planning, emergency response logistics , optimization, decision support DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0142


Article
How much do hazard mitigation plans cost? An analysis of federal grant data
Andrea M. Jackman, PhD; Mario G. Beruvides, PhD, PE
July/August 2013; pages 271-279

Abstract
Under the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 and Federal Emergency Management Agency’s subsequent Interim Final Rule, the requirement was placed on local governments to author and gain approval for a Hazard Mitigation Plan (HMP) for the areas under their jurisdiction. Low completion percentages for HMPs—less than one-third of eligible governments—were found by an analysis conducted 3 years after the final deadline for the aforementioned legislation took place. Follow-up studies showed little improvement at 5 and 8 years after the deadline. It was hypothesized that the cost of a HMP is a significant factor in determining whether or not a plan is completed. A study was conducted using Boolean Matrix Analysis methods to determine what, if any, characteristics of a certain community will most influence the cost of a HMP. The frequency of natural hazards experienced by the planning area, the number of jurisdictions participating in the HMP, the population, and population density were found to significantly affect cost. These variables were used in a regression analysis to determine their predictive power for cost. It was found that along with two interaction terms, the variables explain approximately half the variation in HMP cost. Key words: mitigation, planning, emergency management DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0143


Article
Assessing the quality of state disaster recovery plans: Implications for policy and practice
Dylan Sandler, MRP; Gavin Smith, PhD
July/August 2013; pages 281-291

Abstract
Pre-event planning for postdisaster recovery helps to improve recovery outcomes following disasters by engaging the network of stakeholders involved in recovery and working to develop a degree of consensus around recovery priorities. States serve as a linchpin between local communities and federal agencies, and the development of comprehensive state recovery plans allows states to communicate recovery goals and decision-making processes. This article addresses the limitations of what we know about the role of the state in disaster recovery by describing the application of a plan quality evaluation tool to a sample of state recovery plans. The plans evaluated in this study tended to be heavily focused on federal and state programs and grants available following disasters. To effectively guide recovery decision-making and encourage community resilience, state recovery plans should help to set a direction for recovery and develop corresponding policies that may be implemented by the broad network of stakeholders involved in recovery. Key words: long-term recovery, disaster recovery, plan quality analysis, resiliency DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0144


Article
Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web
Paul P. Hearn Jr,, PhD; Herbert E. “Gene” Longenecker III, MS; John J. Aguinaldo; Ami N. Rahav
July/August 2013; pages 293-302

Abstract
Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS’s newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders. Key words: flooding, natural hazards, HAZUS, USGS, FEMA, risk, GIS DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0145


Article
After Virginia Tech: An analysis of Internet and social media use in campus emergency preparedness
David W. Guth, (MA Journalism)
July/August 2013; pages 303-312

Abstract
This study gauges the degree to which the nation’s colleges and universities learned a key lesson of the 2007 Virginia Tech tragedy: the need to rapidly disseminate emergency information to the campus community. A content analysis of 162 school Web sites found that three of four contained emergency preparedness information. It appears that most are now prepared to use the Internet and social media to alert stakeholders in the event of campus crises. However, less than half had links to emergency/safety information on their home pages. School size and governance appeared to factor in its placement on each Web site. Key words: social media, Internet, public relations, campus communications, emergency preparedness, mitigation DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0146


Article
Development of a national sport event risk management training program for college command groups
Stacey A. Hall, PhD, MBA
July/August 2013; pages 313-320

Abstract
The US Department of Homeland Security identified college sport venues as terrorist targets due to the potential for mass casualties and catastrophic social and economic impact. Therefore, it is critical for college sport safety and security personnel to implement effective risk management practices. However, deficiencies have been identified in the level of preparedness of college sport event security personnel related to risk management training and effective emergency response capabilities. To address the industry need, the National Center for Spectator Sports Safety and Security designed, developed, and evaluated a national sport event risk management training program for National Collegiate Athletic Association command groups. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of the design, development, and evaluation process. Key words: risk management, sport event safety and security, emergency preparedness DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0147

Journal of Emergency Management
September/October 2013, Volume 11
, Number 5


Article
The next challenge to interoperability? A first look at robotic system wireless interoperability in emergency response
Lee P. Battle, MS; Shahram Sarkani, PhD; Thomas A. Mazzuchi, DSc
September/October 2013; pages 333-337

Abstract
System interoperability enables public safety agencies to communicate and share information. Past failures have demonstrated that systems of different agencies are not inherently interoperable. Therefore, as efforts continue toward the resolutions of these problems, it is incumbent on technology developers to assess the interoperability of new systems. Robotic systems can offer new capabilities to public safety personnel; however, these systems also include new communication technology to share and distribute information. Research has been initiated to examine the interoperability of public safety robotic systems. Definitions for robotic communication interoperability types are introduced. Key words: interoperability, wireless, unmanned systems, robotic systems, public safety communications DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0148


Article
Using a simulation cell for exercise realism
Ken Lerner, JD
September/October 2013; pages 338-344

Abstract
A simulation cell or SimCell is an effective and flexible tool for control of emergency management exercises. It allows exercise participants to interact, via simulation, with a wide variety of nonplaying organizations and officials. Adapted from military application, the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) applied, developed, and refined the SimCell concept for emergency management exercises. It has now been incorporated into national exercise guidance through the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program, and has been used in a wide variety of national, regional, and local exercises. This article reviews development of the SimCell concept in CSEPP, briefly surveys current practice incorporating SimCells in exercise control, and offers practical lessons-learned and tips on using a SimCell to best advantage. Lessons learned include using a SimCell as an exercise-control hub; preparing inject material for exercise controllers as part of the Master Scenario Event List; laying the groundwork for success through exercise player and controller training; developing protocol for SimCell communications; and capturing feedback from SimCell controllers for inclusion in the exercise evaluation reporting process. The SimCell concept is flexible and can be applied to a variety of exercise types and through a variety of methods. Key words: exercise, simulation, chemical hazard DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0149


Article
Mainland China nurses’ willingness to report to work in a disaster
Alice Yuen Loke, PhD, MN, BSN, RN; Wai Man Olivia Fung, DHSc, MPH, BN, RN; Xiwen Liu, MSc, RN
September/October 2013; pages 345-354

Abstract
A cross-sectional study among a convenience sample of nurses in China was conducted to understand the factors affecting Chinese nurses’ willingness to report to work in a disaster. A total of 946 questionnaires were collected. Nearly 90 percent of nurses regarded disaster self-help information, an evacuation plan, and contingency measures a must in preparing for disaster care. Many nurses indicated willingness to work during a disaster that may threaten the safety of their family members than when there is a life-threatening infectious disease outbreak (83.6 and 69.6 percent, p = 0.000). Nurses with longer years of clinical experience were more willing to work in both situations (p = 0.014 and 0.000). Fear of contracting an infectious disease and spreading it to family members was a major factor for nurses’ unwillingness to report to work. Hospital administrators should understand their workforce’s willingness in reporting to work and provide appropriate disaster training and support to maximize workforce in a disaster. Key words: workforce, nurses in China, willingness to report to work, disaster DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0150


Article
Exposure levels for chemical threat compounds: Information to facilitate chemical incident response
Veronique D. Hauschild, MPH; Annetta Watson, PhD
September/October 2013; pages 355-384

Abstract
Although not widely known, a robust set of peer-reviewed public health and occupational exposure levels presently exist for key chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and certain acutely toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) identified as terrorist attack threats. Familiarity with these CWA and TIC exposure levels and their historic applications has facilitated emergency management decision-making by public and environmental health decision-makers. Specifically, multiple air, soil, and water exposure levels for CWAs and TICs summarized here have been extensively peer-reviewed and published; many have been recognized and are in use by federal and state health agencies as criteria for hazard zone prediction and assessment, occupational safety, and “how clean is clean enough” decisions. The key, however, is to know which criteria are most appropriate for specific decisions.While public safety is critical, high levels of concern often associated with perceived or actual proximity to extremely toxic chemical agents could result in overly cautious decisions that generate excessive delays, expenditure of scarce resources, and technological difficulties. Rapid selection of the most appropriate chemical exposure criteria is recommended to avoid such problems and expedite all phases of chemical incident response and recovery. Key words: exposure criteria, chemical threat, chemical warfare agents, chemical emergency response, toxic industrial chemicals, arsine, hydrogen cyanide, nerve agents, phosgene, sulfur mustard DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0151


Article
Contingency planning at the flotilla level in the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary: Flotilla 81—A case study
Shawn Erik Schooley, PhD
September/October 2013; pages 385-392

Abstract
This article presents a case study of United States Coast Guard Auxiliary Flotilla 81. Flotilla 81 created its first formal, single agency contingency plan. The research question addressed is “How can a flotilla successfully develop a contingency plan?” Five emergent themes are identified. They are offered as suggested promising practices for other flotillas in need of creating a contingency plan. Findings suggest successful contingency planning is a result of effective collaboration with community partners. Network management theory is a key to an effective contingency planning process. Key words: United States Coast Guard Auxiliary; Contingency planning; Network theory DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0152

Journal of Emergency Management
November/December 2013, Volume 11
, Number 6


Article
First responder and physician liability during an emergency
Amanda Eddy, BA
November/December 2013; pages 405-410

Abstract
First responders, especially emergency medical technicians and paramedics, along with physicians, will be expected to render care during a mass casualty event. It is highly likely that these medical first responders and physicians will be rendering care in suboptimal conditions due to the mass casualty event. Furthermore, these individuals are expected to shift their focus from individually based care to community- or population-based care when assisting disaster response. As a result, patients may feel they have not received adequate care and may seek to hold the medical first responder or physician liable, even if they did everything they could given the emergency circumstances. Therefore, it is important to protect medical first responders and physicians rendering care during a mass casualty event so that their efforts are not unnecessarily impeded by concerns about civil liability. In this article, the author looks at the standard of care for medical first responders and physicians and describes the current framework of laws limiting liability for these persons during an emergency. The author concludes that the standard of care and current laws fail to offer adequate liability protection for medical first responders and physicians, especially those in the private sector, and recommends that states adopt clear laws offering liability protection for all medical first responders and physicians who render assistance during a mass casualty event. Key words: liability, first responders, physicians, standard of care, emergency, mass casualty event DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0153


Article
Emergency mitigation and preparedness in healthcare facilities
Emma Paras, BS, MPH candidate; Robert M. Schwartz, PhD
November/December 2013; pages 411-422

Abstract
The city of Akron, Ohio, has four major healthcare facilities: Akron General Medical Center, Summa Akron City Hospital, Summa St. Thomas, and Akron Children’s Hospital. These institutions have implemented the preparedness and mitigative strategies to prepare for hazards affecting the community. Because of the wide population these facilities serve, it is crucial that an effective emergency management (EM) system be in place at each hospital. Archival research and interviews with the emergency managers of each hospital examine the preparedness of these establishments for disasters. Strengths and weaknesses of the EM systems are also discussed and include recommendations on ways to improve shortcomings. This research demonstrates how EM is evolving and improving in one of the most important critical infrastructure of a community. Key words: emergency management, hospitals, healthcare facilities, mitigation, preparedness DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0154


Article
Moving from situational awareness to decisions during disaster response: Transition to decision making
Jeffrey A. Glick, PhD; Joseph A. Barbara, MD
November/December 2013; pages 423-432

Abstract
During major disasters, at what point in the decisional process do senior government officials transition from developing necessary situational awareness to perform decision making? This “transition to decision making” (TDM) concept was analyzed through a structured interview survey of 25 current and former US Federal Coordinating Officers (FCOs) and focused on their decision-making process during the initial response period in a Presidentially declared Stafford Act disaster. This analysis suggests that the TDM for these emergency leaders is influenced by the following five factors: 1) Analogue Factor: the decision maker’s previous knowledge and experience from analogous disaster situations; 2) New Paradigm Factor: the degree to which the disaster situation is very atypical to the decision maker due to hazard type and/or situation severity, 3) Data Capture Factor: the quality, amount, and speed of disaster situation data conveyed to the decision maker; 4) Data Integration Factor: the decision maker’s ability to integrate situational data elements into a mental framework/picture; and 5) Time Urgency Factor: the decision maker’s perception as to time available before a decision has to be made. The article describes the factors and graphs that how these may influence the timing of the TDM in four types of emergency situations faced by FCOs: 1) an analogue disaster, 2) a disaster situation that presents a new paradigm, 3) an intuitive disaster situation, and 4) a disaster requiring an urgent response. Key words: Federal Coordinating Officer, disaster response, situational awareness, transition to decision making, decision making, new paradigm disaster, intuitive decision making DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0155


Article
Disaster preparedness: An investigation on motivation and barriers
Magiswary Dorasamy, MSc; Murali Raman, PhD; Maran Marimuthu, PhD; Maniam Kaliannan, PhD
November/December 2013; pages 433-446

Abstract
This article presents a preliminary investigation on the motivations for and the barriers that hinder preparedness toward disasters in a community. Survey questionnaires were distributed to local individuals in the nine districts of Selangor state in Malaysia. A total of 402 usable questionnaires were analyzed. The initial findings revealed that community members are motivated for disaster preparedness mainly for family safety reason. However, generally they do not know how to be prepared. This article concludes by highlighting the importance of knowledge and information in community preparedness. This research is limited to one state in Malaysia. However, the chosen state has a large effect on the Malaysian gross domestic product; hence, lack of preparedness poses a critical risk to its large population. This study on motivation and barriers for disaster preparedness is intended to increase the effectiveness of community readiness as a whole toward major disasters such as landslide and flood. The result of this study is valuable to the scientific community within the disaster management domain, the government agencies for policy and strategy formulations, and the local community to preempt, deal with, and ultimately survive disasters. This research aims to ensure that the community is continuously prepared and able to meet the evolving needs of the individual citizen as the nation strives toward promoting a knowledgeable society. Key words: flood, landslide, disaster, community, preparedness, Malaysia DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0156


Article
An oil spill surveillance program for Lake Pontchartrain
Ezra Boyd, PhD; Joao F. Pereira, PhD; Gabriel Retana, PhD; Andy Baker, MS; John Lopez, PhD; Alex McCorquodale, PhD
November/December 2013; pages 447-464

Abstract
This article describes an oil spill surveillance strategy implemented in response to BP’s 2010 MC252 oil well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. A three-pronged strategy consisted of Geographic Information System (GIS) monitoring of the surface slick, hydrodynamic modeling of the potential movement of the slick within the Basin, and weekly field reconnaissance. Our analysis was completed in near real time during the event and the results and predictions helped local responders minimize oiling impacts in Lake Pontchartrain. No prior planning was undertaken before this crisis response, and this article reports our support activities as they happened. For the GIS component, a remote sensing derived surface slick outline layer was obtained to produce near daily maps showing the slick’s proximity to Lake Pontchartrain along with weather conditions and deployed response assets. This regular monitoring of the slicks’ location was complemented by hydrodynamic numerical modeling that simulated the currents that determined the trajectories of oil particles. These data were ground-truthed through weekly reconnaissance trips that assessed the potential routes of oil penetration into Lake Pontchartrain for the presence of sheen, tarballs, and other oil constituents. Despite the ad hoc design and on-the-fly implementation, these three assessments provided consistent and actionable information. Key words: oil spill response, geographic information system/remote sensing monitoring, 3-D hydrodynamic modeling, computational fluid dynamics, Lake Pontchartrain Basin DOI:10.5055/jem.2013.0157