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Journal of Emergency Management
January/February 2012, Volume 10
, Number 1


Article
The state of interoperability in the states
Lori Romer Stone, JD
January/February 2012; pages 7-14

Abstract
A radio is one of the most important elements of a first responder’s uniform. To a police officer, it is a lifeline to a dispatcher who has critical information about an outstanding warrant on the driver of the car she just pulled over; to a firefighter, it is the voices of his colleagues in a smoke-filled building as they search for trapped victims. Radios allow first responders to communicate directly with each other in emergency situations, but there is still much more work to be done before first responders everywhere can talk to each other across agency, county, and state lines. With so much depending on reliable radio communications, the managers of these systems and other people working in the field of interoperable communications need to be aware of incompatible and inadequate communication systems that can cause delays, confusion, and even loss of life; the Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC’s) mandates on narrowbanding and rebanding; and the pending development of a broadband communications network for the nation’s emergency services. This article highlights these important developing issues for those working in interoperable communications and the need for a continued emphasis on improving interoperability. Key words: interoperability, narrowbanding, rebanding, Federal Communications Commission, public-safety communications network DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0082


Article
Assessment of communication needs for emergency management officials in high-consequence emergencies
Pamela McCauley-Bush, PhD; Mohammad Jeelani, BS, MS; Susan Gaines, BS, MS; Llewelyn Curling, PhD; Philip Armbrister, BS, MS; Arturo Watlington, BS, MS; Renaldo Major, BS; Lorneska Rolle, BS; Sarah Cohen, BS
January/February 2012; pages 15-25

Abstract
Objective: To identify the communication needs for Bahamian emergency management officials using wireless technology to support emergency-related activities. Design: This study began with literature review, a focus group interview, and a paper-based survey of emergency management officials. Setting: Focus group interview was held at the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) office in Nassau, Bahamas, with subject matter experts (SMEs). A survey was conducted in which 31 Bahamian emergency management officials had participated. Data were compiled and analyzed at the University of Central Florida (UCF). Subjects and participants: A focus group consisting of 14 SMEs representing NEMA, emergency support functions, and affiliated organizations. Thirty-one Bahamian emergency management officials including 14 SMEs participated in the survey. Interventions: Professors at the College of The Bahamas and UCF read and gave input at each phase of the study, as well as final review in the form of thesis defense at UCF. Main outcome measures: A list of communication needs for emergency management officials in high-consequence emergency management situations was compiled. Results: Identified communication needs include an improved wireless communication infrastructure, official implementation of wireless devices for use in emergencies, and devices with improved durability, usability, and functionality. Conclusions: The surveys and interviews with officials proved to be an effective technique for identifying user problems, difficulties, and preferences with wireless handheld communication devices and telecommunication systems. This methodology can be used to identify the communication needs for emergency management officials around the globe. Key words: communication, disaster response, emergency management, cellular phones, usability, human-centered, wireless communication, human factors DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0083


Article
The Scarborough project: A resilience preparedness training model for comprehensive community trainers--A model in Maine
Richard C. Lumb, PhD; Ronald Breazeale, PhD
January/February 2012; pages 27-40

Abstract
The complexity of homeland security reaches into every aspect of American life. It appears to the casual observer that danger or the threat of harm by natural disaster or from domestic or foreign entities is high and that our emergency responders are occasionally hard pressed to manage the demands placed on them. Government agencies share intelligence and information about potential problems; response is geared to the level of threat and depth of risk. The average citizens, who go about their daily life somewhat mystified by it all, are generally ill prepared to respond to disaster. Citizens must be able to individually and collectively work together to prepare for a natural or human-caused incident during the interim period when public emergency responders are gearing up to broadly respond (eg, in the first 72 hours). As defined by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), preparedness is focused on the development of plans and capabilities for effective disaster response. Response is the immediate reaction to a disaster, and recovery consists of those activities that continue beyond the emergency period to restore critical community functions and to manage reconstruction. The authors add the critical dimension of resilience, the ability to bounce back when adversity or a disaster event occurs. The blended train-the-trainer model prepares individuals with appropriate skills, knowledge, and abilities to enable them to train other community members in resilience preparedness. This model is eclectic and addresses a comprehensive community approach to resilience and preparedness training to include government, citizens, business, schools, volunteer groups, and other partners. Training begins in late September of 2011.Trainees are being selected, and a group session to conduct a backward design exercise will determine their needs for targeted training, within the model, to increase their motivation and learning outcomes. A program evaluation has been designed and is discussed in this article. Key words: resilience, preparedness, whole community DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0084


Article
Attending to the future: The role of learning in emergency response
J. J. McIntyre, PhD; Kenneth A. Lachlan, PhD; Patric R. Spence, PhD
January/February 2012; pages 41-52

Abstract
This study extends on previous examinations of postcrisis and postemergency responses by examining social and mediated learning. The article argues that mediated learning and learning in the classroom may be particularly important after a crisis, both to ameliorate the negative emotional consequences of such events as well as to prompt the learning of information that might be important in future emergencies. Furthermore, an argument is made that the classroom can be used to facilitate postcrisis learning and this can be viewed as part of the university postcrisis response plan. Using data collected after a university shooting, the article bolsters previous research that individuals have the capacity to learn from the media in the midst of a crisis and that the classroom was underutilized as a medium for postcrisis and postemergency learning. Key words: crisis communication, learning, gender, school shooting DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0085


Article
Organizing cross-border fire brigade response in the Dutch-German border region
Kees Boersma, PhD; Erwin Engelman, MSc
January/February 2012; pages 53-62

Abstract
This article addresses the opportunities and problems with cross-border collaboration between the Dutch and German fire brigades. The following are the main problems: 1) no uniformity in concluding and using the cross-border agreements for emergency assistance, 2) the language problem, 3) the material and equipment problem, 4) communication problems, and 5) differences in organizational autonomy. The following are the possible solutions for the aforementioned problems: 1) new routines by joint-training sessions, 2) bilingual information systems, 3) technical standardization of equipment, 4) standardization of communication, and 5) building trust on the basis of insights into each other’s routines. Key words: safety response, cross-border response, organizational collaboration DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0086


Article
School districts and disaster expertise: What types of school districts consult emergency management professionals?
Scott E. Robinson, PhD
January/February 2012; pages 63-72

Abstract
Emergency management calls for collaboration among a wide range of organizations. Many of these organizations are involved in matters of emergency management by statute or organizational mission. However, other organizations participate in emergency management as a task secondary to some other core mission. Why and to what extent these organizations collaborate with emergency management professionals are key questions in our attempt to build a broad coalition of organizations to support emergency management activities. The article considers the case of public school districts. Some school districts collaborate with other organizations to overcome their limited internal capacity to prepare for disasters. Other districts continue to rely on their limited internal capacities. The empirical model compares the relative importance of structural characteristics and perceived vulnerability in predicting which districts are likely to consult with external emergency specialists. The results show that the most persistent force behind the decision to engage an emergency management specialist in preparing for emergencies is the size of the school district. Key words: education management, emergency management, emergency planning DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0087

Journal of Emergency Management
March/April 2012, Volume 10
, Number 2


Article
Interoperability update
Lori Romer Stone, JD
March/April 2012; pages 82-82

Abstract
DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0088


Article
Creating monsters for the greater good of humanity: Conflicting interests of science and homeland security
Patrick P. Rose, PhD; Clark J. Lee, JD; Sarah E. Sasor, MEng; Earl Stoddard III, PhD, MPH
March/April 2012; pages 83-91

Abstract
Society’s rising expectations for improved treatments and better health outcomes continuously push the boundaries of discovery in biomedical research. One focus of such research is to develop the newest drugs to address humanity’s increasing exposure to emerging infectious diseases. This has led both privately and publicly funded researchers to take on the task of studying highly infectious diseases in laboratory settings. Illustrating this phenomenon is the recent work of two research laboratories at universities that have demonstrated how easily the avian flu virus (influenza A H5N1) could be manipulated into a highly infectious and deadly form for humans. These studies, which were funded by the United States Government through the National Institutes of Health of the US Department of Health and Human Services, have sparked a fierce debate as to their risks and benefits to humankind. Lacking in the current debate, however, is any significant attempt to describe in basic terms the risks and benefits of such research or the basic safeguards already built into the biomedical research enterprise that serves to protect the public’s welfare. In this article, the authors will attempt to frame the ongoing debate for those outside the scientific research community by discussing a number of competing public policy issues that the recent H5N1 controversy raises about research on dangerous pathogens or biological agents and the concerns that emergency planners and managers nation-wide face when such research is conducted in their communities. Key words: H5N1, avian influenza, NSABB, dual-use research, biomedical research, preparedness, response, biosecurity DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0089


Article
One neighborhood, two families: A comparison of intergovernmental emergency management relationships
David A. McEntire, PhD; John R. Lindsay, MCP
March/April 2012; pages 93-107

Abstract
This article provides a comparative study of the emergency management systems in Canada and the United States, paying special attention to the nature of intergovernmental relations in these two neighboring countries. This article first provides background information on the challenge of intergovernmental coordination in emergency management. It then explores the similar and distinct contexts of emergency management in Canada and the United States. A discussion of the methods used for this study follows. Findings of the research are presented along with a discussion about the results of this study. This article concludes with implications for emergency management. The major lesson of this research is that even similar sociopolitical contexts may result in very different emergency management approaches, and emergency managers should understand how this impacts their work. Key words: emergency management, Canada, United States, federalism DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0090


Article
On the horizon: The role of aviation in local emergency management planning
Timothy S. Wallace, BS; Jonathan L. Katz, PhD, PMP
March/April 2012; pages 109-120

Abstract
The authors wished to identify available guidance for local emergency management agencies (LEMAs) on the use of aviation resources in local emergency management (EM) planning. If handled properly, aviation is a proven asset that can be effectively used before, during, and after emergencies. The authors determined that literature on LEMA planning provides little evidence of local governments systematically addressing the role of aviation in their planning for emergencies. Most localities could improve their response capabilities if they integrate aviation into their planning. To provide ideas and to spur discussion in the LEMA community, this article addresses the current position of aviation in local emergency planning, what aspects of the role of aviation in emergencies that LEMAs should take into account including federal and state authority in EM aviation, and possible means and templates to assist LEMAs in incorporating aviation into their planning. Key words: aviation, local, emergency, planning DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0091


Article
Enabling the homeland security enterprise through systems engineering the National Exercise Program
Kenneth G. Crowther, PhD; Anna K. A. M. Gradishar, MS; Michael R. French, DBA
March/April 2012; pages 121-138

Abstract
On August 17, 2010, Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Secretary Janet Napolitano signed a memorandum directing an evolution of the National Exercise Program (NEP). The Memo emphasized the importance of the NEP for strengthening and evaluating our nation’s preparedness and reinforced core statutory and regulatory guidance. While the NEP has traditionally focused on national-level exercises, the revised NEP should serve the full homeland security enterprise. This article suggests a direction for evolution of the proposed NEP. It describes how exercise components and stakeholders operate and how they might be better synchronized using methodical system engineering and the careful application of innovative science and technology. Central to aligning and integrating subsystems into a coherent, synergistic whole is the concept of “interface.” System interfaces focus on describing common standards and protocols by which system components relate, interact, and share information. The authors identify five process interfaces from the Secretary’s Memo and describe system architecting principles that could improve NEP flexibility, cost-effectiveness, and robustness. Systems engineering methodologies provide time-proven approaches to describe system characteristics and behavior in ways that facilitate the development of effective interfaces— interfaces that promote overall systems efficiency and provide a basis for measuring and tracking systems performance. This harmonization of information promotes the application of modeling and simulation, which, in turn, promote greater exercise realism and efficiency and create a scientific environment in which to explore and experiment with new concepts and technologies. Key words: homeland security, emergency preparedness, National Exercise Program, systems engineering, systems of systems DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0092


Article
The concept of integrating introductory emergency preparedness training into community volunteer dental surge events
Gregory S. Jacob, BS, MS, DDS; Karin Buchanan, RN, MSN, CEN
March/April 2012; pages 139-142

Abstract
Efforts are needed to promote and integrate preparedness training as an additional benefit of volunteerism at large dental public health related surge events. There is good evidence that typical volunteer dental events offer a variety of service learning opportunities and experiences for direct application in preparedness training. Emergency response officials who offer their involvement in this training may help better prepare dental professionals for any future official medical/dental surge relief efforts and emergencies. Key words: disaster planning, dentists, surge capacity DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0093


Article
Establishment of a Tent Village in Muzaffargarh, Pakistan
Muhammad Navid Tahir, MPH; Waseem Hashmi, MBBS, MPH, MBA; Rizwan Naseer, MBBS, MS, MBA; Amir Rasheed, BSC (Hons); Saima Tofique Rao, MS
March/April 2012; pages 143-152

Abstract
Muzaffargarh was one of the hardest hit districts of Punjab in Flood 2010 in Pakistan. The catastrophic flood claimed 68 human lives and displaced more than 2.5 million people in the district. Rescue 1122 has evacuated 10,841 flood affectees and provided first aid to 400 victims in the first phase of the flood. Afterward, Rescue 1122 established a Tent Village near district Muzaffargarh, where 1,114 people were facilitated with basic human needs for 2 months. The establishment of this Tent Village has proved that the combined efforts of local agencies can play a pivotal role in handling of the major disasters. Key words: Tent Village, Flood 2010, Rescue 1122, Pakistan DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0094

Journal of Emergency Management
May/June 2012, Volume 10
, Number 3


Article
Social vulnerability: An emergency managers’ planning tool
Garrett Dolan, PhD; Dmitry Messen, PhD
May/June 2012; pages 161-169

Abstract
The frequency of natural disasters in the United States is increasing.1 Since 1953, there has been an average of 35 Federal Emergency Management Agency declared disasters per year.2 However, more concerning is that the number of declarations has more than doubled over the last 5 years for an average of 73 per year. Although it is true that natural disasters affect everyone regardless of their respective health and/or wealth, it is also true that not everyone will experience the event in the same way. Those who can adapt to changing situations are more likely to overcome adversity. This article explains social vulnerability as an emerging concept in natural hazard management and demonstrates its utility as a tool for planning and preparing for emergencies within the Houston-Galveston hurricane storm surge evacuation zones. Practitioners will gain insight into the characteristics that make individuals vulnerable while providing a basis for determining how to plan for their needs. Key words: social vulnerability, evacuation, natural disaster, hazard, hurricane storm surge, emergency management, planning tool DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0095


Article
Psychological functioning of tsunami affected people with disabilities: Impact of age
Sujata Satapathy, BA, MA, BEd, MPhil, PhD; Sekar Kasi, BA, MA, PhD
May/June 2012; pages 171-183

Abstract
The study determined differential psychological vulnerability of people with disabilities across different age groups in worst affected areas in tsunami disaster. A total of 275 tsunami affected people with various disabilities aged between 16 and 85 years were included in the final sample. Self Reporting Questionnaire (psychological distress), Impact of Event Scale (post-traumatic stress), and quality of life (QOL) were measured. People in their late adulthood and elderly years reported significantly higher psychological distress when compared with the teens and early adults and the young adults. People across different age groups reported equal posttraumatic stress. Increase in age resulted in more psychological distress and poor physical, social, and environmental QOL. Age and severity of disability were found to be significant predictors of psychological distress. The findings primarily supported the “differential vulnerability hypothesis” in the context of a disaster; therefore, implications are far reaching for the policy makers and planners, administrators/disaster managers, and mental health/psychosocial service providers. Long-term psychosocial and psychiatric interventions are suggested to be provided till the reconstruction and rebuilding phase continues. Key words: psychological distress, quality of life, disaster, aging with a disability DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0096


Article
Factors influencing the decision to evacuate or shelter in place: Follow-up of Hurricane Katrina
Joanne C. Langan, PhD, RN, CNE; Kara M. Christopher, MS, MPH
May/June 2012; pages 185-195

Abstract
Most of the fatalities experienced during Hurricane Katrina involved adults of more than 65 years old. Most of these deaths occurred due to a failure to evacuate their homes. Objective: To determine barriers and facilitators for evacuation. Design/participants: A paper-and-pencil survey was conducted to a convenience sample of 224 older adults. Setting: Mississippi Gulf Coast. Main outcome measures: Deterrents and facilitators for home evacuation and strategies to encourage evacuation during disasters. Measurements: Descriptive and ?2 statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: A major reason for sheltering in place was lack of trust of information provided by the media and county officials. Those who were likely to evacuate feared for their safety and had no pets. Interestingly, the only statistically significant (p = 0.004) characteristic of participants was household annual income. Those who earned less than $20,000 were 2.5 times more likely to evacuate than those with a higher income (odds ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.33, 4.89). Those who made more than $20,000 did not differ in their evacuation decision; they were just as likely to evacuate as they were to shelter in place. Conclusions: Emergency managers and disaster planners must recognize common facilitators and deterrents for evacuation, as well as suggested strategies to increase citizens’ willingness to evacuate. Strategies include receiving accurate information about impending storms, assistance with preparations to leave homes, transportation, affordable motel rates, and information along evacuation routes about shelter vacancies, food, water, gasoline, and toilet facilities. Key words: elderly, emergency preparedness, home evacuation, vulnerable population, hurricanes DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0097


Article
A federal compulsory vaccination plan
Michael Ulrich, BS, JD
May/June 2012; pages 197-202

Abstract
During oral arguments for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Justice Breyer on several occasions questioned whether the federal government could compel individuals to be vaccinated in the event of a national emergency where a highly contagious disease was sweeping through the country. This article does not seek to predict or analyze the legal implications of such an action; rather it argues that a national approach to such an emergency should be implemented. Recent concerns over the potential for H5N1, or “bird flu,” to become airborne illustrate the type of epidemic that Justice Breyer may have been envisioning. By broaching this subject now, instead of in the midst of an outbreak, adequate time is left to research appropriate solutions, allow for debate, and provide public education. While vaccination laws are typically promulgated on the state level under state police power, these compulsory laws are accompanied by exemptions that can undermine their effectiveness. For example, religious and philosophical exemptions have led to outbreaks of pertussis, or whooping cough, in multiple states. Considering the various state exemptions along with laws granting governors and health officials broad power to alter vaccination laws during emergencies, it is nearly impossible to predict how individual states will respond. Legally and ethically speaking, the rights of individuals are not absolute and cannot be utilized to subject others to harm.A federal compulsory vaccination law allows for balancing individual rights and public health, with the interests of the nation as a whole in mind. Key words: federal, compulsory, vaccination, emergency, outbreak DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0098


Article
Systematically using agricultural and animal demographic data in animal health emergency management
Heather A. Allen, PhD, MPA; Kiana Moore, MS
May/June 2012; pages 203-210

Abstract
While the explicit connection has not yet been made in the literature, the systematic incorporation of agricultural and animal demographic data can help to prioritize and inform preparedness and response planning. This article reviews related fields that have used similar data, presents sources of these demographic data, offers examples of existing uses in preparedness and response planning, and details specific ways in which emergency managers can incorporate this data in their policies and plans whether at a local, state, or federal level, and in both the public and private sector. Through multidisciplinary partnerships, emergency management can be improved through the incorporation of demographic information, helping to mitigate the consequences of an animal health emergency, regardless of source, via the incorporation of empirical data. Key words: animal health, emergency management, demography DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0099


Article
The strategic role of Hawaii in disaster coordination in the Asia-Pacific
Ross Prizzia, PhD
May/June 2012; pages 211-227

Abstract
The purpose of this article is to describe and explain the strategic role of Hawaii in disaster coordination in the Asia-Pacific region. Hawaii is of critical importance in the prevention of, preparation for, and response to disasters in the Asia-Pacific region as is demonstrated through the effective coordination of Hawaii-based institutions such as the Pearl Harbor Naval Base, US Pacific Command (PACOM), US Army Pacific (USARPAC), Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS), East- West Center (EWC), Pacific Disaster Center (PDC), Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), and other related disaster management support organizations based throughout the Hawaiian islands. The State of Hawaii seems prepared to respond to natural and human-caused disasters. As the only island state located in the Pacific Ocean, Hawaii continues to require advanced technology for warning systems and effective coordination of emergency management capability to respond to a wide range of natural disasters and the threat of terrorism and an extensive network of coordination, cooperation, and collaboration among relevant disaster and emergency Hawaii-based government agencies at the local, national, and international levels. While some of this network may be unique to Hawaii and the Asia-Pacific region, most is not and can provide useful “best practices” for other practitioners and jurisdictions. Key words: disaster coordination, Asia-Pacific, Hawaii, multiagency collaboration DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0100


Article
Drive-thru influenza immunization: Fifteen years of experience
Ruth M. Carrico, PhD, RN, FSHEA, CIC; W. Paul McKinney, MD, FACP; Nicholas Adam Watson, JD; Timothy Wiemken, PhD, MPH, CIC; John Myers, PhD, MSPH
May/June 2012; pages 228-232

Abstract
Background: In 1995, a yearly drive-thru immunization program was initiated in Louisville, KY. Since then, more than 50,000 doses of influenza vaccine have been administered, with no reports of syncopal episodes or vehicular accidents. This report aimed to identify reported adverse events from other areas that could threaten drive-thru mass immunization approaches. Methods: To identify reported adverse events in any drive-thru mass immunization event, the authors queried the following sources: 1) the vaccine adverse event reporting system, 2) court cases, 3) healthcare risk management databases, 4) MEDLINE, and 5) communication with vaccine experts. The authors also calculated the probability of syncopal episodes using data from our past immunization experiences to further elucidate the possibility of these events occurring. Results: No adverse events due to a drive-thru mass immunization event were identified in any of the sources queried. In our data, the forecasted probability of one adverse event was 0.8 percent for a 2-day event (20,000 immunizations). Conclusions: Although syncope may occur following immunization, it is a risk that can be managed, and due to the rarity of these events, should not be used as a reason to avoid drive-thru administration of influenza vaccine. Key words: immunization, drive-thru, syncope, influenza, vaccine DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0101

Journal of Emergency Management
July/August 2012, Volume 10
, Number 4


Article
Aligning Institutions of Higher Education emergency preparedness plans with the National Response Framework
Maureen Connolly, EdD
July/August 2012; pages 241-251

Abstract
Colleges and universities must be prepared to respond to events that could compromise the safety of any person in a classroom, residence hall, office, or any other campus facility as well as for any event that could jeopardize the continuation of use of any campus facility. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) states, “Higher education institutions ... are realizing that improving their campus’ resistance to disaster will not only protect their own lives and those of their students, it will also safeguard their campus’ instruction, research, and public service.” The US Department of Homeland Security, FEMA developed the overarching strategy, the National Response Framework (NRF), for emergency preparedness for “government executives, private-sector and nongovernmental organization leaders.” FEMA and the Department of Education (DOE) developed specific guidelines for emergency preparedness for colleges and universities. This study linked these guidelines to the five principles of the NRF. Most institutions have an emergency preparedness plan, but just how effective are these plans? Do community colleges, state, independent, and proprietary institutions differ in terms of their level of emergency preparedness? The target population for this study is colleges and universities in the United States. This quantitative study measured how aligned the emergency preparedness plans of these colleges and universities are to the recommendations of FEMA and the US DOE, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The data suggest that much more needs to be done to bring college and university emergency plans into alignment with the government recommendations. Alignment with the government documents for this sample of US colleges and universities is extremely low for each principle of the NRF. Key words: Institutions of Higher Education, college, university, NRF, emergency preparedness DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0102


Article
Toward robust All-Hazards Incident Management Teams: Progress and priorities
Amy K. Donahue, PhD
July/August 2012; pages 253-263

Abstract
In 2008, an effort to enhance the capability of All-Hazards Incident Management Teams (AHIMTs), and thereby improve the nation’s ability to respond to incidents of all types, was launched. To date, there have been three national learning conferences for AHIMT stakeholders. At the first conference, in 2008, attendees participated in a systematic process to identify priorities for the national AHIMT program. At the most recent conference, in December 2010, attendees participated in a study designed to review and update the insights gained from the 2008 conference. This article presents the findings of the 2010 study. The results can help federal, state, and local stakeholders understand AHIMT capabilities and the challenges teams face. Key words: all-hazards, incident management, response capability DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0103


Article
Hydraulic fracturing and the need for risk assessment
Robert O. Schneider, PhD
July/August 2012; pages 265-276

Abstract
This analysis examines the perceived lag in the policy process with respect to risk assessment and risk management in relationship to the development of new technologies that have the potential to create new threats to public health and safety. Hydraulic fracturing and the ongoing revolution in natural gas exploration make an excellent case study of the difficulties that inevitably arise, are difficult to resolve, and that expand threats to public health and safety when policy makers do not prioritize risk assessment and risk management until the negative impacts or potential harms of previous decisions are felt. The analysis begins with a description of the hydraulic fracturing revolution and a discussion of the potential risks associated with it. This will include some of the preliminary scientific work on the subject. The analysis will highlight concerns that timely assessment and management of these risks is often frustrated by the policy process itself. In essence, the conclusion reached is that significant improvements in the timely assessing and managing the risks associated with technological advances require policy makers to emulate the emergency management profession in elevating risk assessment and risk management to the level of a first priority in the policy process. Key words: hydraulic fracturing, risk assessment, risk management DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0104


Article
Tracking H1N1 vaccine doses administered using CDC’s Countermeasure and Response Administration system
Tom T. Shimabukuro, MD, MPH, MBA; Sanjeeb Sapkota, MBBS, MPH; Barbara L. Nichols, BS; Warren G.Williams, MPH; Shirley W. Mullins, MIT, CSM; Leslie Lee, MPH; Sarah Waite, MBA, PMP; Ulrica Andujar, MPH, CHES; Guy Faler, MBA, PMP; Howard H. Hill, BA, BS; Jeanne Tropper, MS, MPH
July/August 2012; pages 277-282

Abstract
During the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, the Countermeasure and Response Administration (CRA) system, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) computer-based informatics application, monitored H1N1 vaccine uptake during the early stages of the US vaccination program, from October through the end of November 2009. CRA, which directly monitors vaccine doses administered, was developed to support the mass tracking of medical countermeasure use during public health events and to complement population-based survey data on vaccination coverage during a pandemic influenza vaccination program. CRA provided weekly near real-time reports of H1N1 vaccine doses administered at national and state levels. On average, during any given week, 58.8 percent of the total data available to be reported was actually reported to CDC. During the 8-week mandatory reporting period, a cumulative total of 13,109,962 first-dose vaccine doses administered were reported through CRA, representing approximately 4.4 percent of the US population. Nearly 60 percent of these doses were administered to individuals aged 6 months to 24 years, an age interval that was included in the initial target groups prioritized to receive vaccine. CRA was a key component of the national surveillance system providing information on early uptake of H1N1 vaccine and monitoring program progress. These accomplishments indicate that CRA can effectively function as an immunization tool to monitor vaccine uptake during a pandemic. Key words: countermeasures, tracking, vaccine, H1N1 influenza, all-hazards, application, systems DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0105


Article
Public disaster mental/behavioral health communication: Intervention across disaster phases
J. Brian Houston, PhD
July/August 2012; pages 283-292

Abstract
Background: Disasters have been found to significantly impact mental and behavioral health.1 A public health response to disaster seeks to ameliorate this impact by identifying mental/behavioral health effects resulting from an event and by promoting healthy disaster-related outcomes. Disaster communication interventions are effective tools that disaster managers can use to achieve these outcomes. Objectives: Based on a review of the literature, the objectives of this article are to describe disaster communication intervention activities and corresponding outcomes and to place those activities in a multiphase disaster communication framework. Results: The Disaster Communication Intervention Framework (DCIF) is proposed. Outcomes targeted by DCIF include improving individual and community preparedness and resilience; decreasing disaster-related distress; promoting wellness, coping, recovery, and resilience; helping a community make sense of what happened during and after a disaster; and rebuilding the community. Strategies for achieving these outcomes are described. Conclusions: DCIF provides a multiphase framework of public disaster mental/behavioral health communication intervention that can be used by disaster managers to improve mental and behavioral outcomes following a disaster. Key words: crisis communication, risk communication, disaster, public health DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0106


Article
Community-based evaluation for the development of a sustainable disaster early warning system
Ashutosh Sutra Dhar, PhD; Mehedi Ahmed Ansary, PhD
July/August 2012; pages 293-302

Abstract
Early warning plays a major role in catastrophic loss reduction during natural disasters. An early warning system should address the needs of the disaster-prone community for the system to be effective and sustainable. This article presents a community-based evaluation of an existing early warning system in a disaster- prone district of Bangladesh. The evaluation is based on several questionnaire surveys carried out within the vulnerable communities in the district. A new satellite- based early warning system was also deployed around the district on a pilot basis. The challenges for the new satellite-based system are discussed based on this pilot study. The study revealed that the community level questionnaire survey could be effective for the design of a sustainable early warning system. Key words: early warning, cyclone shelter, questionnaire survey, community involvement, disaster preparedness DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0107

Journal of Emergency Management
September/October 2012, Volume 10
, Number 5


Article
Editorial. The current crisis and impending disaster
David A. McEntire, PhD
September/October 2012; pages 317-318

Abstract
DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0108


Article
Editorial. I feel your pain: How and why the academic and professional communities must work more closely together
David A. McEntire, PhD
September/October 2012; pages 319-326

Abstract
DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0109


Article
Responding to the call: How America’s failing infrastructure puts pressure on emergency response capabilities
Megan E. Ix, BA; Lisa M. Piccinini, BS; William I. Pons, MA, BS
September/October 2012; pages 327-334

Abstract
America’s crumbling infrastructure has a significant impact on its emergency response capabilities. Failed infrastructure not only creates a need for emergency response but also impacts the ability of first responders to do their job in the first place. To temper these costs, communities across the nation will have to focus on taking preventative measures to repair old infrastructure before it breaks, rather than solely after. This will require balancing a number of important issues, including the financial cost of fixing faulty infrastructure before its failure versus after, the risks to human life and health, and how the sudden, and sometimes extensive, need for emergency response affects the availability of response resources for other accidents. In this article, the authors look at three areas of failed infrastructure—roads and bridges, water, and electricity—to illustrate the ways that failed infrastructure can impact emergency response needs. The authors conclude that while reactive measures are necessary given the vast levels of repair needed for the country’s infrastructure, proactive actions are also increasingly vital to limit the cost that failed infrastructures impose on the American people. Key words: infrastructure, emergency response, emergency responders, American Civil Society of Engineers DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0110


Article
Attitudes on wildfire evacuation: Exploring the intended evacuation behavior of residents living in two Southern California communities
Brian S. Roberson, MS; Danny Peterson, PhD, CEM; Richard W. Parsons, PhD
September/October 2012; pages 335-347

Abstract
Residents living within the Wildland-Urban Interface who fail to immediately evacuate during wildfire emergencies may not only increase the risk of injury or death to themselves but also to firefighters and rescuers tasked to protect them. In the coastal mountains of Santa Barbara County, CA, data on intended resident wildfire evacuation behavior does not exist. This research study used self-administered mail surveys to collect data on attitudes toward wildfire evacuation from more than 200 residents living within the High Fire Hazard Area of the Carpinteria Summerland Fire District (CA). Data derived from completed surveys indicate that although most residents intend to evacuate when given either voluntary or mandatory orders, 10 percent do not. A multivariate analysis performed on these residents indicates that men are less likely to evacuate than women, and long-term residents are less likely to evacuate than short-term residents. Further analysis of these residents indicates a wide variety of reasons for evacuation noncompliance, which are discussed in this study. Based on the results of these analyses, this research study provides recommendations to local public safety officials so they may better prepare for future wildfire evacuation events. Key words: wildfire evacuation, Wildland-Urban Interface, Santa Barbara County, multivariate analysis, firefighter safety, fire department confidence DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0111


Article
Children and disasters: A framework for mental health assessment
Betty Pfefferbaum, MD, JD; Anne K. Jacobs, PhD; J. Brian Houston, PhD
September/October 2012; pages 349-358

Abstract
Background: Providers serving children’s mental health needs face the complexities of tailoring assessments based on developmental stages, family characteristics, school involvement, and cultural and economic factors. This task is even more challenging in the face of a disaster, terrorist incident, or other mass trauma event. Traditional mental health knowledge and skills may not be sufficient to meet children’s needs in these chaotic situations. Unfortunately, disaster planning and response often overlook or only briefly address the unique mental health needs of children. While there is general agreement that children have specific vulnerabilities, few comprehensive plans exist for identifying and addressing children’s mental health needs predisaster and postdisaster. Objectives/methods: Based on a review of the literature, the objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the central tenets of assessment with children throughout the course of a disaster and to propose a framework for disaster mental health assessment that can be used by a variety of providers in community disaster planning and response. Results: Disaster-related assessments are described including surveillance, psychological triage, needs assessment, screening, clinical evaluation, and program evaluation. This article also identifies easily accessible resources for responders and providers who desire to become more familiar with child disaster mental health assessment concepts. Conclusions: The framework described here provides an overview for understanding how assessment can be conducted to identify child and family needs and to inform the delivery of services following a disaster. Key words: assessment, children, disaster, disaster mental health, mass trauma, terrorism, trauma DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0112


Article
Organizations and emergency management: Information, trust, and preparedness
Sheila M. Huss, MA; Abdul-Akeem Sadiq, PhD; Christopher M.Weible, PhD
September/October 2012; pages 359-372

Abstract
In what ways do information and trust relate to the level of organizational preparedness for disasters? Interview and survey data on 227 organizations in Memphis/Shelby County, TN, were analyzed to assess the extent to which organizations use disaster-related information for decision making, and report the information as adequate and relevant. Organizations were also asked to identify their sources for disaster-related information, whom they trust for helping them prepare for disasters, and their level of preparedness for disasters. The results show that more than half of the organizations in Memphis/Shelby County relied on information for disaster management, and of these organizations, the overwhelming majority agreed that the information was both adequate and relevant. The police and fire departments, Memphis/Shelby County Emergency Management Agency, and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention were identified by responding organizations as major sources of information and as organizations that they trusted the most to help them prepare for disasters. Organizations that relied on the Memphis City Government for information were more likely than other organizations to report that they were prepared for disasters. Finally, organizations that relied on the media as one of their top three information sources were less likely than other organizations to report that they were prepared for disasters. Key words: emergency management, organizations, trust, information, Memphis DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0113


Article
A study on a national response framework for Korea
Kyoo-Man Ha, PhD, CEM; Hyeon-Mun Oh, B. Engr, FE/EIT
September/October 2012; pages 373-382

Abstract
This study reviews the organization of Korean emergency management and compares it with the structure used in the United States. The article maintains that Korea could improve its emergency response by implementing a national response framework (NRF). The United States began to set up its NRF in 2008 to enable it to respond to all kinds of hazards, with roles and responsibilities allocated to each stakeholder. Conversely, an NRF has not been implemented in Korea. The analysis utilized both literature review and interviews. The related implications are examined in terms of four components: (1) the concept of the NRF, (2) the roles of the major players, (3) emergency support functions, and (4) networking and coordination. Key words: national response framework, basic plan on national safety management, the United States, Korea DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0114


Article
Developing a comprehensive, integrated and meaningful Multi-year Training and Exercise Plan
Ralph Renger, PhD, MEP; Brenda Granillo, MS
September/October 2012; pages 383-392

Abstract
A Multi-year Training and Exercise Plan (MYTEP) is required for compliance with the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP). The MYTEP is an important tool to a) assist agencies to identify the capabilities necessary for effective preparation, mitigation, response, and recovery and b) develop a training and exercise schedule to meet this need. Federal guidance in completing the MYTEP focuses on the following three key elements: applying the HSEEP building block approach, capability-based planning, and the cycle of continual improvement. The guidance is helpful but requires thoughtful consideration of the interplay between these elements. This article discusses many challenges and solutions for designing an integrated MYTEP including: a) the extent to which the agency goal is to build agency-level or human-level capability, b) the need to address cross-cutting capabilities in resource scarce environments, c) building and maintaining necessary core capabilities, and d) integrating sponsor-required exercises. The application of these concepts is then illustrated using a case example where a MYTEP was designed with a tribal Office of Emergency Management. Key words: multiyear, training and exercise plan, MYTEP DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0115

Journal of Emergency Management
November/December 2012, Volume 10
, Number 6


Article
Letter to the editor. Compilation of Hurricane Sandy fatalities
Wayne Blanchard, PhD
November/December 2012; pages 402-404

Abstract
DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0116


Article
Managing security issues of electronic voting to protect the resiliency of the electoral process
Avery M. Blank, JD
November/December 2012; pages 405-411

Abstract
The purpose of this article is to heighten the awareness among homeland security and emergency management professionals to the significant role they can play in protecting electronic voting from the very real potential of cyberattacks. It is important for these professionals to understand electronic voting and its advantages and disadvantages at this point in time because the number of cybersecurity attacks is increasing, electronic voting usage is increasing, and the media have overlooked this aspect of the voting system. Homeland security professionals and, in particular, emergency management professionals need to be involved because electronic voting is intimately connected with the nation’s critical infrastructure, voting is a local activity, and the principles of emergency management professionals suggest that they have the relevant skills to help solve the security issues related to electronic voting. Key words: critical infrastructure, cyberattack, cybersecurity, electoral fraud, electoral process, electronic voting, emergency management, e-voting, Hurricane Sandy, i-voting, principles of emergency management, Sandy DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0117


Article
Building a disaster behavioral health response to a radiological nuclear disaster
Ashley Pearson, BS, MPA, CBCP, CTR; Elena Cherepanov, PhD, CTS
November/December 2012; pages 413-424

Abstract
The analysis of psychological reactions to the past nuclear plants disasters, such as Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania (1979), Chernobyl, Ukraine (1986), and Fukushima, Japan (2011), allows for a development of adequate preparedness and response protocols. The systemic, long-term, and future-oriented impact of radionuclear-type event calls for inclusion of the behavioral health module into comprehensive and multidisciplinary disaster response planning. It is important to incorporate the psychosocial education and focused trainings for responders, public officials, healthcare workers, teachers, and spiritual leaders into established systems of readiness on local, state, and federal levels. Inaccurate or misleading information perpetuates misconceptions and contributes to further victimization of survivors. Building strong partnerships with media can assist in supporting the survivors, gathering testimonies, and mobilizing aid resources by bringing public attention to the problem and shaping public opinion. Key words: radionuclear disaster, systemic impact, disaster behavioral health, psychological reactions DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0118


Article
Quantifying risk through the use of the consolidated risk assessment process
Barry Bouwsema, MS, CEM
November/December 2012; pages 425-432

Abstract
The consolidated risk assessment (CRA) allows for risk to be quantified and thereby can be used as a measuring tool to determine process investment priorities in the capability-based planning (CBP) process. The CRA has potential application across Canada working with government and regional sectors. Through risk modeling, the potential of risk and its inherent consequence can be used to determine the success of investment in mitigating the identified threat. The CRA presents a new opportunity to improve how risk is measured, monitored, managed, and minimized through the four phases of emergency management, namely prevention, preparation, response, and recovery. Defence Research and Development Canada is interested in researching and developing the possible benefits of a comprehensive approach to risk assessment and management to reduce risk throughout Canada. The CRA model provides a framework against which potential risk can be measured and quantified, thereby improving safety for all Canadians. Key words: capability-based planning, emergency management, research, risk assessment DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0119


Article
Critical review of Terrain Tile and Google Earth: Virtual image mapping methods for floodplain management
Richard Wise, MSCE, EIT; Andrew Darnell, MSCE, EIT; John Quaranta, PhD, PE
November/December 2012; pages 433-441

Abstract
Inundation mapping is a major component of floodplain management, providing critical information as to the consequences of potential failures of flood control structures. Flood mitigation efforts rely on the creation of inundation maps to develop appropriate response measures for crisis situations, including dam failures. To develop inundation maps, a dam and river system is modeled with engineering computer programs, and a simulation of the dam failure is performed to generate data for the flood. This output data are input into other programs to develop inundation maps. Inundation maps have traditionally been produced in a paper format, but recent advances in computer modeling have provided the capability for virtual inundation maps. Virtual inundation maps offer new methods of presentation and analysis of flood impacts; thus, these mapping methods need to be investigated to determine the applications and relevance to floodplain management. The goal of this research is to advance the development and use of inundation maps by floodplain managers and emergency agencies. A simulation of a potential dam failure was performed using computer modeling for a candidate river system, and the inundation maps were created using two procedures: Terrain Tiles and Google Earth. An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of each mapping procedure was conducted. The results indicated that the Terrain Tiles procedure has advantages in displaying critical information, such as arrival times and water depths. However, this mapping procedure is more labor intensive, and the online file sharing may not be accessible for all users. The strengths of the Google Earth procedure include two-dimensional and three-dimensional views for analysis, user-friendly file sharing, and the inclusion of built-in critical infrastructure and terrain data. Drawbacks of this procedure are that the inundation must still be generated in ArcGIS, the display of critical information is not as clear, and the online file sharing may pose security issues. Thus, the Terrain Tiles procedure should be used for the development of emergency response measures, and the Google Earth procedure should be used by emergency responders in the event of an actual emergency. Key words: paper inundation mapping, virtual inundation mapping, floodplain management, HECRAS, hydrologic modeling, simulated dam failure, HEC-GeoRAS, Terrain Tiles, ArcGIS, Google Earth DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0120


Article
Using root cause analysis (RCA) to facilitate corrective actions, after action reports (AARs), and improvement plans
Ralph Renger, PhD, MEP; Mary Davis, DrPH; Brenda Granillo, MS
November/December 2012; pages 442-448

Abstract
Root cause analysis (RCA) is methodology recommended by the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) for examining why exercise objectives were not met and providing specific recommendations for corrective action. The consequence of not completing the RCA as required by HSEEP is significant. In the absence of a RCA arriving at the best corrective action is less likely. Despite its importance, there is research evidence from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study that the RCA is seldom completed. Several reasons are presented as to why the RCA is not completed including a lack of guidance as to how to conduct a RCA. An example of how to complete a RCA is provided followed by a discussion of the benefits of using the approach over traditional exercise debriefing methods. Reasons why there may be continued resistance to using RCA despite having the necessary facilitation skills and dedicated time are also discussed. Key words: RCA, HSEEP, RCA and exercise evaluation DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0121


Article
Refining the Hospital Incident Command System to improve Hospital Command Center management of survey activity
Alfred A. Villacara, DMD; Eliot J. Lazar, MD; Brian K. Regan, PhD
November/December 2012; pages 449-458

Abstract
The “Survey Command Structure” initiative refines and streamlines the Hospital Incident Command System (HICS) structure to more effectively guide a hospital’s management of regulatory survey activity. This newly developed structure retains the hallmark features that make HICS effective but sees the addition of some new roles along with the editing or elimination of others. A literature review reveals no other hospitals undertaking similar initiatives to address survey management. The structure directly contributed to an outstanding result with the most recent Joint Commission survey. Hospitals should embrace this updated structure to allow for improved response to a myriad of regulatory surveys. Key words: HICS, Hospital Command Center, regulatory survey DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0122


Article
Challenges in mass fatality management: A case study of the 2010 Haiti earthquake
Abdul-Akeem Sadiq, PhD; David McEntire, PhD
November/December 2012; pages 459-471

Abstract
A mass fatality incident occurs when a disaster causes many deaths and the affected country does not have sufficient resources to process the remains of victims. The January 12, 2010 earthquake in Haiti was one such event; the estimated 316,000 deaths overwhelmed the response system of the government. The purpose of this article is to review the challenges relating to mass fatality management in this incident. Findings were collected through interviews of 28 individuals along with personal observation obtained during two visits to Haiti after the earthquake. The article argues that a good understanding of these challenges (eg, aftershocks, debris, movement and tampering with bodies, lack of resources, environmental factors, smell of decomposing bodies, threat of epidemics, unidentified bodies, psychological stress, and looting) is crucial for an effective response and quick recovery in communities affected by mass fatality incidents. The article concludes with recommendations for addressing these challenges. Key words: mass fatality management challenges, 2010 Haiti earthquake, planning DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0123