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Journal of Emergency Management
January/February 2012, Volume 10
, Number 1


Article
The state of interoperability in the states
Lori Romer Stone, JD
January/February 2012; pages 7-14

Abstract
A radio is one of the most important elements of a first responder’s uniform. To a police officer, it is a lifeline to a dispatcher who has critical information about an outstanding warrant on the driver of the car she just pulled over; to a firefighter, it is the voices of his colleagues in a smoke-filled building as they search for trapped victims. Radios allow first responders to communicate directly with each other in emergency situations, but there is still much more work to be done before first responders everywhere can talk to each other across agency, county, and state lines. With so much depending on reliable radio communications, the managers of these systems and other people working in the field of interoperable communications need to be aware of incompatible and inadequate communication systems that can cause delays, confusion, and even loss of life; the Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC’s) mandates on narrowbanding and rebanding; and the pending development of a broadband communications network for the nation’s emergency services. This article highlights these important developing issues for those working in interoperable communications and the need for a continued emphasis on improving interoperability. Key words: interoperability, narrowbanding, rebanding, Federal Communications Commission, public-safety communications network DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0082


Article
Assessment of communication needs for emergency management officials in high-consequence emergencies
Pamela McCauley-Bush, PhD; Mohammad Jeelani, BS, MS; Susan Gaines, BS, MS; Llewelyn Curling, PhD; Philip Armbrister, BS, MS; Arturo Watlington, BS, MS; Renaldo Major, BS; Lorneska Rolle, BS; Sarah Cohen, BS
January/February 2012; pages 15-25

Abstract
Objective: To identify the communication needs for Bahamian emergency management officials using wireless technology to support emergency-related activities. Design: This study began with literature review, a focus group interview, and a paper-based survey of emergency management officials. Setting: Focus group interview was held at the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) office in Nassau, Bahamas, with subject matter experts (SMEs). A survey was conducted in which 31 Bahamian emergency management officials had participated. Data were compiled and analyzed at the University of Central Florida (UCF). Subjects and participants: A focus group consisting of 14 SMEs representing NEMA, emergency support functions, and affiliated organizations. Thirty-one Bahamian emergency management officials including 14 SMEs participated in the survey. Interventions: Professors at the College of The Bahamas and UCF read and gave input at each phase of the study, as well as final review in the form of thesis defense at UCF. Main outcome measures: A list of communication needs for emergency management officials in high-consequence emergency management situations was compiled. Results: Identified communication needs include an improved wireless communication infrastructure, official implementation of wireless devices for use in emergencies, and devices with improved durability, usability, and functionality. Conclusions: The surveys and interviews with officials proved to be an effective technique for identifying user problems, difficulties, and preferences with wireless handheld communication devices and telecommunication systems. This methodology can be used to identify the communication needs for emergency management officials around the globe. Key words: communication, disaster response, emergency management, cellular phones, usability, human-centered, wireless communication, human factors DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0083


Article
The Scarborough project: A resilience preparedness training model for comprehensive community trainers--A model in Maine
Richard C. Lumb, PhD; Ronald Breazeale, PhD
January/February 2012; pages 27-40

Abstract
The complexity of homeland security reaches into every aspect of American life. It appears to the casual observer that danger or the threat of harm by natural disaster or from domestic or foreign entities is high and that our emergency responders are occasionally hard pressed to manage the demands placed on them. Government agencies share intelligence and information about potential problems; response is geared to the level of threat and depth of risk. The average citizens, who go about their daily life somewhat mystified by it all, are generally ill prepared to respond to disaster. Citizens must be able to individually and collectively work together to prepare for a natural or human-caused incident during the interim period when public emergency responders are gearing up to broadly respond (eg, in the first 72 hours). As defined by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), preparedness is focused on the development of plans and capabilities for effective disaster response. Response is the immediate reaction to a disaster, and recovery consists of those activities that continue beyond the emergency period to restore critical community functions and to manage reconstruction. The authors add the critical dimension of resilience, the ability to bounce back when adversity or a disaster event occurs. The blended train-the-trainer model prepares individuals with appropriate skills, knowledge, and abilities to enable them to train other community members in resilience preparedness. This model is eclectic and addresses a comprehensive community approach to resilience and preparedness training to include government, citizens, business, schools, volunteer groups, and other partners. Training begins in late September of 2011.Trainees are being selected, and a group session to conduct a backward design exercise will determine their needs for targeted training, within the model, to increase their motivation and learning outcomes. A program evaluation has been designed and is discussed in this article. Key words: resilience, preparedness, whole community DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0084


Article
Attending to the future: The role of learning in emergency response
J. J. McIntyre, PhD; Kenneth A. Lachlan, PhD; Patric R. Spence, PhD
January/February 2012; pages 41-52

Abstract
This study extends on previous examinations of postcrisis and postemergency responses by examining social and mediated learning. The article argues that mediated learning and learning in the classroom may be particularly important after a crisis, both to ameliorate the negative emotional consequences of such events as well as to prompt the learning of information that might be important in future emergencies. Furthermore, an argument is made that the classroom can be used to facilitate postcrisis learning and this can be viewed as part of the university postcrisis response plan. Using data collected after a university shooting, the article bolsters previous research that individuals have the capacity to learn from the media in the midst of a crisis and that the classroom was underutilized as a medium for postcrisis and postemergency learning. Key words: crisis communication, learning, gender, school shooting DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0085


Article
Organizing cross-border fire brigade response in the Dutch-German border region
Kees Boersma, PhD; Erwin Engelman, MSc
January/February 2012; pages 53-62

Abstract
This article addresses the opportunities and problems with cross-border collaboration between the Dutch and German fire brigades. The following are the main problems: 1) no uniformity in concluding and using the cross-border agreements for emergency assistance, 2) the language problem, 3) the material and equipment problem, 4) communication problems, and 5) differences in organizational autonomy. The following are the possible solutions for the aforementioned problems: 1) new routines by joint-training sessions, 2) bilingual information systems, 3) technical standardization of equipment, 4) standardization of communication, and 5) building trust on the basis of insights into each other’s routines. Key words: safety response, cross-border response, organizational collaboration DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0086


Article
School districts and disaster expertise: What types of school districts consult emergency management professionals?
Scott E. Robinson, PhD
January/February 2012; pages 63-72

Abstract
Emergency management calls for collaboration among a wide range of organizations. Many of these organizations are involved in matters of emergency management by statute or organizational mission. However, other organizations participate in emergency management as a task secondary to some other core mission. Why and to what extent these organizations collaborate with emergency management professionals are key questions in our attempt to build a broad coalition of organizations to support emergency management activities. The article considers the case of public school districts. Some school districts collaborate with other organizations to overcome their limited internal capacity to prepare for disasters. Other districts continue to rely on their limited internal capacities. The empirical model compares the relative importance of structural characteristics and perceived vulnerability in predicting which districts are likely to consult with external emergency specialists. The results show that the most persistent force behind the decision to engage an emergency management specialist in preparing for emergencies is the size of the school district. Key words: education management, emergency management, emergency planning DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0087

Journal of Emergency Management
March/April 2012, Volume 10
, Number 2


Article
Interoperability update
Lori Romer Stone, JD
March/April 2012; pages 82-82

Abstract
DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0088


Article
Creating monsters for the greater good of humanity: Conflicting interests of science and homeland security
Patrick P. Rose, PhD; Clark J. Lee, JD; Sarah E. Sasor, MEng; Earl Stoddard III, PhD, MPH
March/April 2012; pages 83-91

Abstract
Society’s rising expectations for improved treatments and better health outcomes continuously push the boundaries of discovery in biomedical research. One focus of such research is to develop the newest drugs to address humanity’s increasing exposure to emerging infectious diseases. This has led both privately and publicly funded researchers to take on the task of studying highly infectious diseases in laboratory settings. Illustrating this phenomenon is the recent work of two research laboratories at universities that have demonstrated how easily the avian flu virus (influenza A H5N1) could be manipulated into a highly infectious and deadly form for humans. These studies, which were funded by the United States Government through the National Institutes of Health of the US Department of Health and Human Services, have sparked a fierce debate as to their risks and benefits to humankind. Lacking in the current debate, however, is any significant attempt to describe in basic terms the risks and benefits of such research or the basic safeguards already built into the biomedical research enterprise that serves to protect the public’s welfare. In this article, the authors will attempt to frame the ongoing debate for those outside the scientific research community by discussing a number of competing public policy issues that the recent H5N1 controversy raises about research on dangerous pathogens or biological agents and the concerns that emergency planners and managers nation-wide face when such research is conducted in their communities. Key words: H5N1, avian influenza, NSABB, dual-use research, biomedical research, preparedness, response, biosecurity DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0089


Article
One neighborhood, two families: A comparison of intergovernmental emergency management relationships
David A. McEntire, PhD; John R. Lindsay, MCP
March/April 2012; pages 93-107

Abstract
This article provides a comparative study of the emergency management systems in Canada and the United States, paying special attention to the nature of intergovernmental relations in these two neighboring countries. This article first provides background information on the challenge of intergovernmental coordination in emergency management. It then explores the similar and distinct contexts of emergency management in Canada and the United States. A discussion of the methods used for this study follows. Findings of the research are presented along with a discussion about the results of this study. This article concludes with implications for emergency management. The major lesson of this research is that even similar sociopolitical contexts may result in very different emergency management approaches, and emergency managers should understand how this impacts their work. Key words: emergency management, Canada, United States, federalism DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0090


Article
On the horizon: The role of aviation in local emergency management planning
Timothy S. Wallace, BS; Jonathan L. Katz, PhD, PMP
March/April 2012; pages 109-120

Abstract
The authors wished to identify available guidance for local emergency management agencies (LEMAs) on the use of aviation resources in local emergency management (EM) planning. If handled properly, aviation is a proven asset that can be effectively used before, during, and after emergencies. The authors determined that literature on LEMA planning provides little evidence of local governments systematically addressing the role of aviation in their planning for emergencies. Most localities could improve their response capabilities if they integrate aviation into their planning. To provide ideas and to spur discussion in the LEMA community, this article addresses the current position of aviation in local emergency planning, what aspects of the role of aviation in emergencies that LEMAs should take into account including federal and state authority in EM aviation, and possible means and templates to assist LEMAs in incorporating aviation into their planning. Key words: aviation, local, emergency, planning DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0091


Article
Enabling the homeland security enterprise through systems engineering the National Exercise Program
Kenneth G. Crowther, PhD; Anna K. A. M. Gradishar, MS; Michael R. French, DBA
March/April 2012; pages 121-138

Abstract
On August 17, 2010, Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Secretary Janet Napolitano signed a memorandum directing an evolution of the National Exercise Program (NEP). The Memo emphasized the importance of the NEP for strengthening and evaluating our nation’s preparedness and reinforced core statutory and regulatory guidance. While the NEP has traditionally focused on national-level exercises, the revised NEP should serve the full homeland security enterprise. This article suggests a direction for evolution of the proposed NEP. It describes how exercise components and stakeholders operate and how they might be better synchronized using methodical system engineering and the careful application of innovative science and technology. Central to aligning and integrating subsystems into a coherent, synergistic whole is the concept of “interface.” System interfaces focus on describing common standards and protocols by which system components relate, interact, and share information. The authors identify five process interfaces from the Secretary’s Memo and describe system architecting principles that could improve NEP flexibility, cost-effectiveness, and robustness. Systems engineering methodologies provide time-proven approaches to describe system characteristics and behavior in ways that facilitate the development of effective interfaces— interfaces that promote overall systems efficiency and provide a basis for measuring and tracking systems performance. This harmonization of information promotes the application of modeling and simulation, which, in turn, promote greater exercise realism and efficiency and create a scientific environment in which to explore and experiment with new concepts and technologies. Key words: homeland security, emergency preparedness, National Exercise Program, systems engineering, systems of systems DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0092


Article
The concept of integrating introductory emergency preparedness training into community volunteer dental surge events
Gregory S. Jacob, BS, MS, DDS; Karin Buchanan, RN, MSN, CEN
March/April 2012; pages 139-142

Abstract
Efforts are needed to promote and integrate preparedness training as an additional benefit of volunteerism at large dental public health related surge events. There is good evidence that typical volunteer dental events offer a variety of service learning opportunities and experiences for direct application in preparedness training. Emergency response officials who offer their involvement in this training may help better prepare dental professionals for any future official medical/dental surge relief efforts and emergencies. Key words: disaster planning, dentists, surge capacity DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0093


Article
Establishment of a Tent Village in Muzaffargarh, Pakistan
Muhammad Navid Tahir, MPH; Waseem Hashmi, MBBS, MPH, MBA; Rizwan Naseer, MBBS, MS, MBA; Amir Rasheed, BSC (Hons); Saima Tofique Rao, MS
March/April 2012; pages 143-152

Abstract
Muzaffargarh was one of the hardest hit districts of Punjab in Flood 2010 in Pakistan. The catastrophic flood claimed 68 human lives and displaced more than 2.5 million people in the district. Rescue 1122 has evacuated 10,841 flood affectees and provided first aid to 400 victims in the first phase of the flood. Afterward, Rescue 1122 established a Tent Village near district Muzaffargarh, where 1,114 people were facilitated with basic human needs for 2 months. The establishment of this Tent Village has proved that the combined efforts of local agencies can play a pivotal role in handling of the major disasters. Key words: Tent Village, Flood 2010, Rescue 1122, Pakistan DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0094

Journal of Emergency Management
May/June 2012, Volume 10
, Number 3


Article
Social vulnerability: An emergency managers’ planning tool
Garrett Dolan, PhD; Dmitry Messen, PhD
May/June 2012; pages 161-169

Abstract
The frequency of natural disasters in the United States is increasing.1 Since 1953, there has been an average of 35 Federal Emergency Management Agency declared disasters per year.2 However, more concerning is that the number of declarations has more than doubled over the last 5 years for an average of 73 per year. Although it is true that natural disasters affect everyone regardless of their respective health and/or wealth, it is also true that not everyone will experience the event in the same way. Those who can adapt to changing situations are more likely to overcome adversity. This article explains social vulnerability as an emerging concept in natural hazard management and demonstrates its utility as a tool for planning and preparing for emergencies within the Houston-Galveston hurricane storm surge evacuation zones. Practitioners will gain insight into the characteristics that make individuals vulnerable while providing a basis for determining how to plan for their needs. Key words: social vulnerability, evacuation, natural disaster, hazard, hurricane storm surge, emergency management, planning tool DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0095


Article
Psychological functioning of tsunami affected people with disabilities: Impact of age
Sujata Satapathy, BA, MA, BEd, MPhil, PhD; Sekar Kasi, BA, MA, PhD
May/June 2012; pages 171-183

Abstract
The study determined differential psychological vulnerability of people with disabilities across different age groups in worst affected areas in tsunami disaster. A total of 275 tsunami affected people with various disabilities aged between 16 and 85 years were included in the final sample. Self Reporting Questionnaire (psychological distress), Impact of Event Scale (post-traumatic stress), and quality of life (QOL) were measured. People in their late adulthood and elderly years reported significantly higher psychological distress when compared with the teens and early adults and the young adults. People across different age groups reported equal posttraumatic stress. Increase in age resulted in more psychological distress and poor physical, social, and environmental QOL. Age and severity of disability were found to be significant predictors of psychological distress. The findings primarily supported the “differential vulnerability hypothesis” in the context of a disaster; therefore, implications are far reaching for the policy makers and planners, administrators/disaster managers, and mental health/psychosocial service providers. Long-term psychosocial and psychiatric interventions are suggested to be provided till the reconstruction and rebuilding phase continues. Key words: psychological distress, quality of life, disaster, aging with a disability DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0096


Article
Factors influencing the decision to evacuate or shelter in place: Follow-up of Hurricane Katrina
Joanne C. Langan, PhD, RN, CNE; Kara M. Christopher, MS, MPH
May/June 2012; pages 185-195

Abstract
Most of the fatalities experienced during Hurricane Katrina involved adults of more than 65 years old. Most of these deaths occurred due to a failure to evacuate their homes. Objective: To determine barriers and facilitators for evacuation. Design/participants: A paper-and-pencil survey was conducted to a convenience sample of 224 older adults. Setting: Mississippi Gulf Coast. Main outcome measures: Deterrents and facilitators for home evacuation and strategies to encourage evacuation during disasters. Measurements: Descriptive and ?2 statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: A major reason for sheltering in place was lack of trust of information provided by the media and county officials. Those who were likely to evacuate feared for their safety and had no pets. Interestingly, the only statistically significant (p = 0.004) characteristic of participants was household annual income. Those who earned less than $20,000 were 2.5 times more likely to evacuate than those with a higher income (odds ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.33, 4.89). Those who made more than $20,000 did not differ in their evacuation decision; they were just as likely to evacuate as they were to shelter in place. Conclusions: Emergency managers and disaster planners must recognize common facilitators and deterrents for evacuation, as well as suggested strategies to increase citizens’ willingness to evacuate. Strategies include receiving accurate information about impending storms, assistance with preparations to leave homes, transportation, affordable motel rates, and information along evacuation routes about shelter vacancies, food, water, gasoline, and toilet facilities. Key words: elderly, emergency preparedness, home evacuation, vulnerable population, hurricanes DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0097


Article
A federal compulsory vaccination plan
Michael Ulrich, BS, JD
May/June 2012; pages 197-202

Abstract
During oral arguments for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Justice Breyer on several occasions questioned whether the federal government could compel individuals to be vaccinated in the event of a national emergency where a highly contagious disease was sweeping through the country. This article does not seek to predict or analyze the legal implications of such an action; rather it argues that a national approach to such an emergency should be implemented. Recent concerns over the potential for H5N1, or “bird flu,” to become airborne illustrate the type of epidemic that Justice Breyer may have been envisioning. By broaching this subject now, instead of in the midst of an outbreak, adequate time is left to research appropriate solutions, allow for debate, and provide public education. While vaccination laws are typically promulgated on the state level under state police power, these compulsory laws are accompanied by exemptions that can undermine their effectiveness. For example, religious and philosophical exemptions have led to outbreaks of pertussis, or whooping cough, in multiple states. Considering the various state exemptions along with laws granting governors and health officials broad power to alter vaccination laws during emergencies, it is nearly impossible to predict how individual states will respond. Legally and ethically speaking, the rights of individuals are not absolute and cannot be utilized to subject others to harm.A federal compulsory vaccination law allows for balancing individual rights and public health, with the interests of the nation as a whole in mind. Key words: federal, compulsory, vaccination, emergency, outbreak DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0098


Article
Systematically using agricultural and animal demographic data in animal health emergency management
Heather A. Allen, PhD, MPA; Kiana Moore, MS
May/June 2012; pages 203-210

Abstract
While the explicit connection has not yet been made in the literature, the systematic incorporation of agricultural and animal demographic data can help to prioritize and inform preparedness and response planning. This article reviews related fields that have used similar data, presents sources of these demographic data, offers examples of existing uses in preparedness and response planning, and details specific ways in which emergency managers can incorporate this data in their policies and plans whether at a local, state, or federal level, and in both the public and private sector. Through multidisciplinary partnerships, emergency management can be improved through the incorporation of demographic information, helping to mitigate the consequences of an animal health emergency, regardless of source, via the incorporation of empirical data. Key words: animal health, emergency management, demography DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0099


Article
The strategic role of Hawaii in disaster coordination in the Asia-Pacific
Ross Prizzia, PhD
May/June 2012; pages 211-227

Abstract
The purpose of this article is to describe and explain the strategic role of Hawaii in disaster coordination in the Asia-Pacific region. Hawaii is of critical importance in the prevention of, preparation for, and response to disasters in the Asia-Pacific region as is demonstrated through the effective coordination of Hawaii-based institutions such as the Pearl Harbor Naval Base, US Pacific Command (PACOM), US Army Pacific (USARPAC), Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (APCSS), East- West Center (EWC), Pacific Disaster Center (PDC), Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), and other related disaster management support organizations based throughout the Hawaiian islands. The State of Hawaii seems prepared to respond to natural and human-caused disasters. As the only island state located in the Pacific Ocean, Hawaii continues to require advanced technology for warning systems and effective coordination of emergency management capability to respond to a wide range of natural disasters and the threat of terrorism and an extensive network of coordination, cooperation, and collaboration among relevant disaster and emergency Hawaii-based government agencies at the local, national, and international levels. While some of this network may be unique to Hawaii and the Asia-Pacific region, most is not and can provide useful “best practices” for other practitioners and jurisdictions. Key words: disaster coordination, Asia-Pacific, Hawaii, multiagency collaboration DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0100


Article
Drive-thru influenza immunization: Fifteen years of experience
Ruth M. Carrico, PhD, RN, FSHEA, CIC; W. Paul McKinney, MD, FACP; Nicholas Adam Watson, JD; Timothy Wiemken, PhD, MPH, CIC; John Myers, PhD, MSPH
May/June 2012; pages 228-232

Abstract
Background: In 1995, a yearly drive-thru immunization program was initiated in Louisville, KY. Since then, more than 50,000 doses of influenza vaccine have been administered, with no reports of syncopal episodes or vehicular accidents. This report aimed to identify reported adverse events from other areas that could threaten drive-thru mass immunization approaches. Methods: To identify reported adverse events in any drive-thru mass immunization event, the authors queried the following sources: 1) the vaccine adverse event reporting system, 2) court cases, 3) healthcare risk management databases, 4) MEDLINE, and 5) communication with vaccine experts. The authors also calculated the probability of syncopal episodes using data from our past immunization experiences to further elucidate the possibility of these events occurring. Results: No adverse events due to a drive-thru mass immunization event were identified in any of the sources queried. In our data, the forecasted probability of one adverse event was 0.8 percent for a 2-day event (20,000 immunizations). Conclusions: Although syncope may occur following immunization, it is a risk that can be managed, and due to the rarity of these events, should not be used as a reason to avoid drive-thru administration of influenza vaccine. Key words: immunization, drive-thru, syncope, influenza, vaccine DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0101

Journal of Emergency Management
July/August 2012, Volume 10
, Number 4


Article
Aligning Institutions of Higher Education emergency preparedness plans with the National Response Framework
Maureen Connolly, EdD
July/August 2012; pages 241-251

Abstract
Colleges and universities must be prepared to respond to events that could compromise the safety of any person in a classroom, residence hall, office, or any other campus facility as well as for any event that could jeopardize the continuation of use of any campus facility. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) states, “Higher education institutions ... are realizing that improving their campus’ resistance to disaster will not only protect their own lives and those of their students, it will also safeguard their campus’ instruction, research, and public service.” The US Department of Homeland Security, FEMA developed the overarching strategy, the National Response Framework (NRF), for emergency preparedness for “government executives, private-sector and nongovernmental organization leaders.” FEMA and the Department of Education (DOE) developed specific guidelines for emergency preparedness for colleges and universities. This study linked these guidelines to the five principles of the NRF. Most institutions have an emergency preparedness plan, but just how effective are these plans? Do community colleges, state, independent, and proprietary institutions differ in terms of their level of emergency preparedness? The target population for this study is colleges and universities in the United States. This quantitative study measured how aligned the emergency preparedness plans of these colleges and universities are to the recommendations of FEMA and the US DOE, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The data suggest that much more needs to be done to bring college and university emergency plans into alignment with the government recommendations. Alignment with the government documents for this sample of US colleges and universities is extremely low for each principle of the NRF. Key words: Institutions of Higher Education, college, university, NRF, emergency preparedness DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0102


Article
Toward robust All-Hazards Incident Management Teams: Progress and priorities
Amy K. Donahue, PhD
July/August 2012; pages 253-263

Abstract
In 2008, an effort to enhance the capability of All-Hazards Incident Management Teams (AHIMTs), and thereby improve the nation’s ability to respond to incidents of all types, was launched. To date, there have been three national learning conferences for AHIMT stakeholders. At the first conference, in 2008, attendees participated in a systematic process to identify priorities for the national AHIMT program. At the most recent conference, in December 2010, attendees participated in a study designed to review and update the insights gained from the 2008 conference. This article presents the findings of the 2010 study. The results can help federal, state, and local stakeholders understand AHIMT capabilities and the challenges teams face. Key words: all-hazards, incident management, response capability DOI:10.5055/jem.2012.0103


Article
Hydraulic fracturing and the need for risk assessment
Robert O. Schneider, PhD
July/August 2012; pages 265-276

Abstract
This analysis examines the perceived lag in the policy process with respect to risk assessment and risk management in relationship to the development of new technologies that have the potential to create new threats to public health and safety. Hydraulic fracturing and the ongoing revolution in natural gas exploration make an excellent case study of the difficulties that inevitably arise, are difficult to resolve, and that expand threats to public health and safety when policy makers do not prioritize risk assessment and risk management until the negative impacts or potential harms of previous decisions are felt. The analysis begins with a description of the hydraulic fracturing revolution and a discussion of the potential risks associated with it. This will include some of the preliminary scientific work on the subject. The analysis will highlight concerns that timely assessment and management of these risks is often frustrated by the policy process itself. In essence, the conclusion reached is that significant improvements in the timely assessing and managing the risks associated with technological advances require policy makers to emulate the emergency management profession in elevating risk assessment and risk management to the level of a first priority in the policy process. Key words: hydraulic fracturing, risk assessment, risk management DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0104


Article
Tracking H1N1 vaccine doses administered using CDC’s Countermeasure and Response Administration system
Tom T. Shimabukuro, MD, MPH, MBA; Sanjeeb Sapkota, MBBS, MPH; Barbara L. Nichols, BS; Warren G.Williams, MPH; Shirley W. Mullins, MIT, CSM; Leslie Lee, MPH; Sarah Waite, MBA, PMP; Ulrica Andujar, MPH, CHES; Guy Faler, MBA, PMP; Howard H. Hill, BA, BS; Jeanne Tropper, MS, MPH
July/August 2012; pages 277-282

Abstract
During the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, the Countermeasure and Response Administration (CRA) system, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) computer-based informatics application, monitored H1N1 vaccine uptake during the early stages of the US vaccination program, from October through the end of November 2009. CRA, which directly monitors vaccine doses administered, was developed to support the mass tracking of medical countermeasure use during public health events and to complement population-based survey data on vaccination coverage during a pandemic influenza vaccination program. CRA provided weekly near real-time reports of H1N1 vaccine doses administered at national and state levels. On average, during any given week, 58.8 percent of the total data available to be reported was actually reported to CDC. During the 8-week mandatory reporting period, a cumulative total of 13,109,962 first-dose vaccine doses administered were reported through CRA, representing approximately 4.4 percent of the US population. Nearly 60 percent of these doses were administered to individuals aged 6 months to 24 years, an age interval that was included in the initial target groups prioritized to receive vaccine. CRA was