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Journal of Emergency Management
January/February 2011, Volume 9
, Number 1


Article
Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Guidance on Planning for Integration of Functional Needs Support Services in General Population Shelters: Progress despite practical impediments
Aileen Xenakis, JD
January/February 2011; pages 9-13

Abstract
This article identifies the key elements of Federal Emergency Management Agency’s November 2010 Guidance on Planning for Integration of Functional Needs Support Services in General Population Shelters. It addresses the impact that such guidance will have within the emergency management and sheltering community, specifically what integration means from a policy perspective as well as from a practical standpoint. This article addresses the impetus behind the guidance and demonstrates that although budget constraints might not allow for all changes to be made immediately and completely, the guidance itself, as a standard to which state and local governments can aspire, is a critical development for the improvement of sheltering community members with functional needs. Key words: shelter, guidance, FEMA, functional needs, special needs, general population shelter, policy, local government DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0042


Article
Applying a framework for defining emergency management scenarios
Douglas Raymond Hales, MA; Peter Race, MA
January/February 2011; pages 15-24

Abstract
Introduction: Scenarios are used extensively to support emergency management (EM). Virtually every user within the community, from policymakers to first responders, uses scenarios in one guise or another. They provide the context to characterize a dynamic problem space, to support the rehearsal of response options, and to facilitate the evaluation of new technology. With such far-reaching implications, there needs to be a means to guide scenario selection. Objective: The Canadian Centre for Security Science sponsored the development of a framework to characterize scenarios and to assist in evaluating EM capabilities, explicitly in the area of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear response. The framework also complements capability-based planning and provides a means to share scenarios. Methodology: The Public Safety and Security Planning Scenario Framework assists the EM community, which ranges from the national to the community level, by selecting scenarios based on user perspectives and objectives. In developing the framework, three challenges were addressed: a taxonomy was required to frame and define what constitutes a scenario; parameters were needed to describe and characterize scenarios; and structure was called for to assist in ordering the collection and comparison of representative scenarios. The first challenge involved reviewing existing literature to define the term “scenario.” Typically, scenarios are used to consider near-term threats, to capture planning assumptions, and to provide the perspective necessary to assess concepts and capabilities. The framework proposes a set of criteria or dimensions (eg, risks, triggers, and time horizons) that can be used to characterize scenarios. To test the framework, a representative set of scenarios was cataloged using these dimensions. Analysis of the resulting set was instructive in revealing the differences in planning scenarios across the chemical, biological, radiological/nuclear, and explosive communities. As the framework matures, it is hoped that it will promote information reuse and provide a valuable forum for capturing best practices and developing standards, enhancing efficiency and effectiveness improvements both locally and nationally. Key words: scenario, capability-based planning, vignette, risk DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0043


Article
The role of intermodal transportation in humanitarian supply chains
Han Zhang, MS; Lesley Strawderman, PhD; Burak Eksioglu, PhD
January/February 2011; pages 25-36

Abstract
After a natural or man-made disaster, effective and efficient disaster relief support is needed. People affected by disasters should be moved from impacted areas, and staff and disaster relief supplies need to be moved to affected destinations in a timely manner. Disaster relief supply chains facilitate the transportation of personnel and supplies that directly affect the humanitarian aid performance. Utilizing appropriate transportation modes in the relief chain is critical to maintain effective relief operations. The main objective of this study is to identify the role of intermodal transportation and related decision making in disaster relief transportation. This objective will be achieved through the following specific aims: identify and assess the current response operations; determine how, if at all, and why humanitarian organizations utilize different modes of transportation to move goods and personnel effectively and efficiently when responding to and recovering from disasters; and identify factors that will potentially enhance the attractiveness of using intermodal transportation. To achieve these aims, two rounds of interviews were conducted first, and second, a large-scale online survey was distributed. Data analysis found that intermodal transportation is not frequently used in disaster relief operations. Decision makers in disaster relief agencies consider multiple factors when choosing transportation modes, but among the factors identified by participants, travel distance was the transportation mode considered most often, regardless of whether supplies or people were being transported. Finally, the organizations that cover larger areas and preposition supplies in their relief operations tend to use intermodal transportation more frequently. Key words: intermodal transportation, decision making, relief supply chains DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0044


Article
Toward multihazard mitigation: An evaluation of FEMA-approved hazard mitigation plans under the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000
Oluponmile O. Olonilua, PhD; Olurominiyi Ibitayo, PhD
January/February 2011; pages 37-49

Abstract
This article evaluates the extent to which the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)-approved plans submitted by local and tribal governments in response to the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 (DMA2K) comply with the requirements of the Act. The DMA2K requires state, local, and tribal governments to develop a FEMA-approved hazard mitigation plan to remain eligible for predisaster funding. The specific requirements investigated in this study are collaboration with several identified stakeholders in the planning process and in the mitigation action section of the plans, incorporation of public information and awareness in the mitigation action section, and public participation both in the process of developing the plans and in the mitigation action section of the plans. Other requirements include the incorporation of evacuation and sheltering as elements of multihazard plan, terrorism, technological hazard, and “special needs” population. A total of 202 FEMA-approved hazard mitigation action plans were selected using both stratified and purposive sampling, and the result of the evaluation shows that the extent of compliance by cities and counties in the sampled multijurisdictions with the requirements of DMA2K and FEMA is generally low. For example, more than 70 percent of cities in four of the sampled multijurisdictions did not include evacuation or sheltering in their hazard mitigation action plans. With the exception of provision for special needs population, t-test analyses of all requirements show no significant difference between plans produced by counties and cities. This study provides a policy learning opportunity for policy makers, emergency management officials, and many other stakeholders to make necessary adjustments to the hazard mitigation plans while reviewing and updating approved plans. This is especially true as DMA2K requires that plans must be updated and reviewed after 5 years. Key words: hazard mitigation, emergency management, Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000, collaboration, public information and awareness, Federal Emergency Management Agency, evacuation, multiple hazards DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0045


Article
Hurricane preparedness and sheltering preferences of Muslims living in Florida
Ahed M. Mando, BS; Lori Peek, PhD; Lisa M. Brown, PhD; Bellinda L. King-Kallimanis, PhD Candidate
January/February 2011; pages 51-64

Abstract
Objectives: Given the increasing diversity of the US population and the continued threat of hurricane devastation along the heavily populated Gulf Coast region, the lack of research on preparedness and sheltering activities across religious or cultural groups represents a significant gap in the field of hazards and disaster research. To address this void, a questionnaire examining hurricane preparedness attitudes and sheltering preferences was administered to Muslims living in Tampa, Florida. Design: An exploratory study using a cross-sectional survey of Muslim adults who were attending a religious or cultural event. Setting: The Islamic Society of Tampa Bay Area and the Muslim American Society located in Tampa, Florida. Participants: The final convenience sample of 139 adults had a mean age of 38.87 years (± 11.8) with males and females equally represented. Results: Significant differences were found in disaster planning activities and confidence in hurricane preparedness. Notably, 70.2 percent of the respondents were unsure about having a plan or were without a plan. Of the 29.7 percent who actually had a plan, 85.4 percent of those individuals were confident in their hurricane preparedness. This study also revealed that safety, cleanliness, access to a prayer room, and privacy were concerns related to using a public shelter during hurricanes. Nearly half of the respondents (47.4 percent) noted that the events of 9/11 influenced their comfort level about staying in a public shelter during a hurricane disaster. Conclusions: Disaster planners should be aware of the religious practices of the Islamic community, encourage disaster planning among diverse groups, and address safety and privacy concerns associated with using public shelters. Key words: disasters, hurricanes, preparedness, shelters, evacuation, Florida, Muslims DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0046


Article
Tracking antimicrobials dispensed during an anthrax attack: A case study from the New Hampshire anthrax exercise
Jeanne Tropper, MS, MPH; Chris Adamski, RN, MSN; Cynthia Vinion, MEA; Sanjeeb Sapkota, MBBS, MPH
January/February 2011; pages 65-69

Abstract
The Countermeasure and Response Administration (CRA) system is a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention informatics application developed to track countermeasures, including medical interventions (eg, vaccinations and pharmaceuticals) and nonmedical interventions (eg, patient isolation, quarantine, and personal protective equipment), administered during a public health response. This case study follows the use of CRA as a supplement to paper-based processes during an exercise in which antimicrobials dispensed to individual exposed persons were captured after a simulated bioterrorist attack of anthrax spores. The exercise was conducted by the New Hampshire Division of Public Health Services on April 14, 2007. Automated systems like CRA can track when medications are dispensed. The data can then be used for performance metrics, statistics, and in locating victims for follow-up study. Given that this case study was limited to a single location in a relatively rural setting, the authors concluded that more study is needed to compare the feasibility of using an automated system rather than paper-based processes for effectively managing a very large-scale urgent public health response. Key words: anthrax, antimicrobials, informatics, tracking, monitoring, countermeasures DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0047


Article
Agent-based modeling to inform flood emergency planning and management
Manuela Di Mauro, BEng, MEng, PhD; Darren Lumbroso, MEng, MSc, CEng; Andy Tagg, MEng, Ceng
January/February 2011; pages 71-79

Abstract
Objective: Agent-based modeling can provide powerful tools to inform flood emergency management and to provide an assessment of loss of life due to a flood event. The objective of this work is to study the suitability and robustness of this type of models for being applied in practice in managing flood emergencies. Design: This article describes the application of a prototype, agent-based Life Safety Model (LSM) to two populated areas in the Thames Estuary. Parameters sensitivity analyses have also been performed to assess the robustness and the applicability of this model as part of the actual emergency practice. Results: The model of the two areas resulted in the estimation of the number of fatalities for each scenario for different causes such as drowning, exhaustion, building collapse, and vehicles being swept away. The model was also successfully validated against historical data from the 1953 Canvey Island flood. Conclusions: The LSM offers a scientifically robust method of assessing injuries and lives lost, and it allows the comparison of different emergency management strategies that could assist in reducing the loss of life during future flood incidents. Key words: flood, disaster management, emergency planning, loss of life, agent based DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0048

Journal of Emergency Management
March/April 2011, Volume 9
, Number 2


Article
Children and disaster planning: The National Commission on Children and Disasters’ findings and recommendations
Emily Cathryn Cornette, JD, Angelique Pui-Ka So, JD
March/April 2011; pages 11-16

Abstract
This article focuses on the National Commission on Children and Disaster’s 2010 Report regarding disaster planning for children. This article recommends measures to ensure best practices in planning for children in disasters. It also highlights the unique needs of children and sheds light on the differences between planning for children and planning for other at-risk populations. Key words: children, disaster, National Commission on Children and Disasters DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0049


Article
Incorporating strategic management into public health emergency preparedness
James R. Langabeer II, PhD; Jami L. DelliFraine, PhD
March/April 2011; pages 17-25

Abstract
Although federal funding for public health emergency preparedness has approached $10 billion since September 11, 2001, there has been little research on the value of this investment relative to competing priorities or whether these funds achieved desired goals. Although some have argued that this dearth of research is due to a lack of definition for preparedness, the authors contend that the problems result from lack of goal specificity and absence of a guiding strategy. This results in minimal cooperation between agencies and low levels of measured preparedness outcomes. By using insights from the discipline of strategic management, the authors provide guidance to the field in development of government policies for developing a comprehensive integrated preparedness strategy. Key words: emergency preparedness, public health, strategy, management DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0050


Article
Emergency management policies and natural hazards in the United States: A state-level analysis
Luis M. Pinet-Peralta, PhD; Rick Bissell, PhD; Katrina Hein, BSc, MSc; David Prakash, MSc
March/April 2011; pages 27-38

Abstract
Every year, natural hazards kill and injure hundreds of people and also have significant social, economic, and political effects on society. However, not all disasters or crises are the focus of state, regional, or national efforts to mitigate their effects. In this article, the authors use Wilson’s policy typology to describe the unintended consequences that disaster legislation has had on the distribution of costs and benefits of disaster relief programs in the United States. The data provide evidence that the concentration of disaster relief programs for natural disasters is not based on need and that interest groups commonly drive disaster policies to benefit those with the greatest risk for losses rather than those in greatest need. Policymakers can use this information to examine both intended and unintended consequences of disaster response and recovery policies and can orient the limited resources available toward those who are least capable of recovering from natural disasters. Key words: emergency management, public policy, planning, natural disasters, mitigation DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0051


Article
Long-term care and disaster preparedness: A study of organizational types and levels of preparedness for a disaster or emergency
Saher Selod, MA; Janice Heineman, PhD; Catherine O’Brien, MPH, MA; Scott P. King, PhD
March/April 2011; pages 39-48

Abstract
Objectives: Although the consequences of Hurricane Katrina motivated considerable research into long-term care (LTC) facility preparedness, many questions still remain. This study examines the characteristics of LTC facility in relation to the level of preparedness to discern whether there are patterns that can inform future planning efforts. The data from PREPARE, a federally funded disaster preparedness program for LTC staff, are used in the analysis. Methods: More than 400 PREPARE participants completed both baseline and impact surveys as well as a demographic survey, allowing for an analysis of the characteristics and levels of disaster preparedness among participating LTC facilities. Crosstabs were run for the baseline and impact surveys against the demographic survey that the participants completed. Cluster analysis was performed to fit organizations into distinct groups based on their baseline responses to key preparedness domains. Results: The results of the crosstabs reveal the specific areas where LTC facilities have a more comprehensive disaster plan. For example, skilled nursing facilities appear to be more prepared than continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs); rural facilities seem to be more prepared than urban facilities; and facilities that are part of a chain did not emerge as being better equipped than independent facilities. Cluster analysis found three groups of organizations: “Resourceful but Hesitant,” “Unprepared,” and “Model Preparedness.” Conclusions: These findings have important implications for public health efforts surrounding disaster preparedness in LTC. The findings suggest that CCRCs deserve special attention in preparedness planning and that consideration in disaster planning is required in both rural and urban areas. Key words: long-term care, disaster preparedness, emergency preparedness, older adults, disaster plan DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0052


Article
Developing a campus mental health resource plan
Quintana M. Clark, BS, MBA Candidate; J. Eric Dietz, PhD, PE; Jefferson F. Howells, BS
March/April 2011; pages 49-59

Abstract
There has been an accelerated increase in the number of college students experiencing psychological distresses. The variance of the distresses are causing college campuses across the United States to realize the need for organized campus-wide collaborative mental health plans as part of their emergency management operations plan. In this article, the authors outline a method for developing a mental health resource plan (MHRP). Our plan is designed to aid in decreasing emergent and nonemergent mental-health related incidents and serve as a guide for addressing distressed students, faculty, and staff. Addressing mental health issues in college campuses across the nation is gaining widespread attention due to recent tragic mental health-related incidents. In an effort to support the initiatives that address mental health on college campuses, in 2008 and 2009, the US Department of Education granted a total of 19 million to us and 42 other higher education institutions to develop, review, or improve campus-based all-hazards emergency management plans, which includes addressing and assessing the mental health needs of students who are at risk of causing harm to themselves or others. As a partial result of this research effort, the authors present a generalized methodology for developing a college campus MHRP that can be used to prevent, prepare, respond, and recover from mental health-related emergency events. Key words: mental health, resource plan, emergency preparedness, psychological distresses, emergency management, campus safety, crisis events DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0053


Article
The role of the medical students in influenza pandemic response
Gina Waight, MD; Abeba Berhane, MD; Lorenzo Orton, MD; Sandro Cinti, MD; John E. Billi, MD; Christopher S. Kim, MD, MBA
March/April 2011; pages 60-66

Abstract
Objectives: To better define the role of the medical students in the event of a disaster requiring a surge response in healthcare systems. Setting: The University of Michigan Medical School and Health System, where staffing plans for a pandemic flu were actively taking place. Subjects: All medical students at the University of Michigan. Interventions: The authors surveyed medical students to evaluate how they felt they could contribute during a pandemic flu. Results: Of the students who completed the survey, 88 percent of the respondents felt that students should formally be incorporated into the health system’s staffing plan during a pandemic. This survey further identified the specific patient care tasks that students felt comfortable performing, which may be of value to medical school and hospital administration that are considering inclusion of medical students into their pandemic planning. Conclusions: There should be formal inclusion of medical students into health systems’ staffing plans in the case of pandemic flu, as they are valuable first responders who are both willing and able to participate in the pandemic response. Key words: pandemic, influenza, medical education, resources, staffing DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0054


Article
Conservation districts and emergency management: New partners for tight fiscal times
Jason Weinerman, MPA
March/April 2011; pages 67-72

Abstract
Declining state budgets and pressure on the federal budget are likely to leave local emergency management efforts in a precarious position. During these challenging times, all government agencies will need to reach out and establish new partnerships to accomplish their missions. Emergency management situations, such as blizzards, fire, floods, and drought, are likely to originate in rural areas, and finding a partner who has a good working relationship with rural landowners is critical. Conservation districts are special- purpose government units that have a long history of working with rural landowners and getting active management installed on the ground. In addition, conservation districts have existing partnerships with other state and federal agencies, which can bring additional financial resources into the emergency management arena in a multipurpose framework. Although conservation districts are unlikely to be able to work in preparation and response planning, they can provide valuable assistance in mitigation and recovery operations. By including these special-purpose units of government in the emergency management planning and implementation efforts, emergency managers can extend their reach while not having to add additional resources. Key words: emergency management, conservation districts, partners, rural landowners DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0055

Journal of Emergency Management
May/June 2011, Volume 9
, Number 3


Article
The federal government’s potential power to coordinate or take state assets during emergencies
Raymond K. Shin, JD, MPP
May/June 2011; pages 7-10

Abstract
The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Stafford Act) allows the federal government to intervene in emergency response efforts without the consent of state governments when there is an emergency that involves a responsibility or authority that is exclusively or pre-eminently granted to the United States. This statute may allow the federal government to coordinate the use of state assets when a state is unable to protect its citizens. Furthermore, the federal government could be able to take state-owned assets and resources under the Takings Clause of the US Constitution to serve the public purpose of responding to a wide-scale emergency as long as there is just compensation for such use. The federal government has yet to employ the Stafford Act or the Takings Clause to coordinate or take state emergency response assets, and although it is unlikely that the federal government would do so in the future, such scenarios may occur under the current legal framework. Key words: emergency management, state, federal, Stafford Act, eminent domain, Takings Clause DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0056


Article
Ethics and oil: Preventing the next disaster
Robert O. Schneider, PhD
May/June 2011; pages 11-22

Abstract
This analytical paper assesses the BP Deepwater Horizon 2010 oil well explosion in the Gulf of Mexico in the context of ethical theory in the field of emergency management. It reviews the relevant literature that pertains to the ethical dimensions of decision making in relation to industrial disasters. Once the theoretical framework is established, a descriptive presentation of features common to Deepwater Horizon and past oil disasters is presented. The analysis suggests that the BP disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was, as much as anything else, the product of a systemic ethical failure on the part of both the oil industry and public officials. In addressing this failure, principles consistent with the theory presented are identified along with some preliminary action steps to stimulate and guide ongoing discussion and evaluation pertaining to the application of ethical theory to the important tasks of risk reduction and safety. Key words: ethics, industrial disasters, Deepwater Horizon DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0057


Article
Aging and disaster: Coping in the wake of Hurricane Katrina
Christine L. Day, PhD; Alicia N. Jencik, PhD
May/June 2011; pages 23-36

Abstract
Objectives: Understanding people’s resources and vulnerabilities is important to ongoing policymaking efforts in emergency management and disaster resilience. This study examines the self-reported experiences, psychological effects, and evacuation behaviors of New Orleanians across age groups, hypothesizing that older people are more likely to experience property losses and physical difficulties, but less likely to experience negative psychological effects. Design: Data from a series of surveys between 2006 and 2009 of New Orleans residents after the 2005 flood caused by levee breaches in the wake of Hurricane Katrina are analyzed using logistic and ordered probit regression techniques. Results: Respondents aged 65 years and older were significantly less likely than other respondents to report lost possessions; to worry about the future; to experience sadness, sleep loss, irritability, and lack of focus; and to have difficulties getting medical care and home repairs in the months following the storm, even when controlling for socioeconomic status, gender, and race. Conclusions: Although it is important to note that the respondents represent those who had made it back to the city, rather than the entire pre-Katrina population, the results indicate that old age can be more of a resource than a weakness in the face of disaster. Disaster policy should not only consider and plan for older people’s vulnerabilities but also prepare to benefit from older people’s life experiences and resilience. Key words: aging, disaster, resilience, Hurricane Katrina DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0058


Article
National emergency training systems in the United States and Korea
Kyoo-Man Ha, PhD, CEM
May/June 2011; pages 37-48

Abstract
This study aims to improve national emergency training systems in the United States and Korea by comparing their governments and policies, nongovernment partners and their roles, and other issues while drawing related implications to contribute to emergency management. The major tenet of this study is as follows: the US training system is decentralized and covers all kinds of hazards, whereas the Korean system is centralized and focuses on a civil engineering viewpoint besides fire fighting. As a result, the US government needs to support training in business more actively. On the other hand, the Korean National Emergency Management Agency, as a central government, needs to expand its emergency training into governments at lower levels, and at the same time covering all aspects of emergencies in their training programs. To have better output, two national leaders should check out the aforementioned implications realistically as well as theoretically. Key words: emergency training, FEMA, Korean NEMA, interdisciplinary study DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0059


Article
Strengthening women’s security in crisis? The virtual implementation of strategies and guidelines
Kristin S. Scharffscher, PhD; Odd Einar Olsen, PhD
May/June 2011; pages 49-59

Abstract
Humanitarian agencies consist of several organizational levels, of which some find themselves far from each other in terms of culture and context. In their efforts to ensure a common direction in activities, humanitarian managers therefore rely on an array of guiding documents such as strategies, policies, and guidelines. Such guiding documents, however, are reported to have a marginal effect on humanitarian practice at field level. In this article, the authors take a closer look at the interlevel dynamics of humanitarian agencies and ask why their guiding documents are prone to flawed implementation. This study is centered on the United Nations Development Programme’s Gender Equality Strategy 2008-2011, and in particular its Eight Point Agenda for women’s empowerment and gender equality in crisis prevention and recovery. Theories concerning safety management and organizational accidents in commercial companies are used to analyze the implementation process. The findings revealed job perception gaps and diverging “realities” between the different organizational levels, combined with implementation indicators that are perceived as “irrelevant” at the country office and field office levels. Indicators tend to measure the output of administrative efforts within the organization rather than the outcome for the crisis-affected communities the guiding document was intended to protect. This phenomenon can be described as virtual implementation, as managers at the headquarters level are left with a mistaken belief that their guiding documents have made a humanitarian impact. As a consequence, virtual implementation can exacerbate the job perception gaps within the organization and develop latent conditions for future failures. Key words: humanitarian agencies, security, strategy, implementation, gender, Sri Lanka DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0060


Article
Sprawl and fire department response times across the United States
Matin Katirai, PhD
May/June 2011; pages 61-80

Abstract
Fire emergencies demand an immediate response from fire departments so that precious lives may be saved. How those services are distributed in a city will have a tremendous impact on how timely residents will receive a response. Urban sprawl, the pervasive development pattern of the United States, may also have a considerable impact on how agencies respond to everyday emergencies. Urban sprawl creates inefficiencies in service provision and has negative externalities, such as congestion, which also impact public safety. This study investigated and analyzed fire protection as an urban service and the impacts of urban sprawl on fire response. The goal for this study was to examine the impact of the landscape and the characteristics that are associated with sprawl on response times. Data from eight major US cities were collected, including Louisville, KY, Houston, TX, San Francisco, CA, Miami, FL, Seattle ,WA, Portland, OR, Charlotte, NC, and St. Paul, MN. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were used in the examination of cities and their fire districts. Linear regression was used as the main quantitative technique to regress response times (as the main dependent variable) along with the other variables that were associated with sprawl. Three fire chiefs from Louisville, KY, were also interviewed from an urban, urban/suburban, suburban fire districts to assess the impact of sprawl on their respective fire districts. Results indicate that there is variation of how characteristics of urban sprawl affect response times and that the results vary within cities and between cities. Some of the sprawl variables were found to hinder response times in some cities, whereas the opposite was true for other cities. When designing new urban/suburban communities, some of the general recommendations are that steps should be taken to reduce congestion, commuting, and vehicle ownership allowing for better access. Other authors have suggested that both developers and consumers should face higher costs associated with the risk of living In sprawled areas than people may reconsider their choices on where to live, reducing the demand for sprawled types of developments. Key words: sprawl, response time, fire department DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0061

Journal of Emergency Management
July/August 2011, Volume 9
, Number 4


Article
Editorial Playgrounds helping to heal traumatized children
David B. Jones, EdD, CTRS
July/August 2011; pages 11-12

Abstract
DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0062


Article
Emergency management 2.0: Integrating social media in emergency communications
R. Sabra Jafarzadeh, JD
July/August 2011; pages 13-18

Abstract
Social media services have changed the way we communicate and analyze information. Through social media services, individuals can exchange information with large groups of people in real time. Furthermore, web-enabled cellular devices have made social media services accessible to significant portions of the population at all times. Moreover, because mobile infrastructure is more resilient than other modes of communication, it is the likely mode of communication during an emergency or disaster. As such, local emergency management agencies should incorporate social media tools into their communication plans to effectively communicate with the public and to obtain an enhanced level of situational awareness during an emergency or disaster. Many local emergency management agencies are unaware of the benefits of using social media tools and have false notions about the liabilities associated with social media discourse. By educating themselves about social media services, local emergency management agencies will find that social media services are an accessible resource that should be integrated within their existing communication plans. Key words: social media, mobile device, communications, Facebook, Twitter, cellular device, Web 2.0 DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0063


Article
Cost and benefits of a typical county’s emergency response program
Lillian R. Butterworth, MS; Steve Riedel, BS; J. Eric Dietz, PhD, PE
July/August 2011; pages 19-34

Abstract
Threats from natural disasters and terrorist attacks are real and are occurring ever closer to home. The State Homeland Security Program authorizes annual grants to supplement state and local response capabilities. Although county-level emergency management agencies have received grants to enhance response capabilities, analysis tools to strategically manage these new capabilities are still not in place. Through a combination of research, qualitative, and quantitative analysis, this study provides a broad view of the resource-based relationships between a typical Midwest county emergency management agency and its neighboring district counties, as well as other counties and districts within the state. A capabilities assessment and a life cycle cost analysis are also presented to demonstrate ways of valuing response equipment and the future costs associated with replacement, maintenance, and training. Key words: homeland security, emergency management, sustainment, life cycle cost DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0064


Article
Impact of a multidisciplinary disaster response exercise
David J. Cook, PhD; Niaman Nazir, MBBS, MPH; Marta Skalacki, BA; Carole Dale Grube, MA; Won S. Choi, PhD, MPH
July/August 2011; pages 35-43

Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a week-long, full-scale training exercise in Kansas on multidisciplinary disaster responders from health and public safety. Design and setting: Design was structured on phase I (1 to 3 days of classroom training) and phase II (32-hour hands-on collaborative response to a simulated disaster with multiple scenarios). Prospective survey data gathered information from participants in six exercise tracks of Command, Disaster Medicine, Emergency Operations Center, Fire Rescue, Law Enforcement, and Public Information Officer. Subjects: Three hundred ninety-two multidisciplinary participants voluntarily enrolled through a continuing education registration mechanism, and all completed the exercise. Interventions: Surveys were completed at preclassroom (90 percent completion rate), postclassroom (81 percent), and postdisaster simulation at 6 months after exercise (33-76 percent). Main outcome measures: Four primary outcome measures were planned before the exercise began. Results: Since September 11, 2001, one-third of participants attended one or two similar trainings. Fire rescue participants reported lowest levels of new course content, and disaster medicine the highest. Ninety-five percent of participants reported that personal training goals were met. There were increases in substantial confidence levels in self, agency, the south central state region, and the state to respond to disasters. The least amount of confidence increase was in the state’s ability. Conclusions: Full-scale exercises require considerable time, resources, and funding; however, they offer attainment/enhancement of skills with immediate application in a team-oriented, practical setting, and this experience is invaluable when responding to real disasters caused by environmental forces, emerging infections, or terrorist events. Key words: disaster exercise, multidisciplinary response, confidence levels of multidisciplinary disaster responders DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0065


Article
Disaster preparedness and educational attainment
Lauren A. Menard, EdD; Robert O. Slater, PhD; Jim Flaitz, PhD
July/August 2011; pages 45-52

Abstract
The relationship between level of educational attainment and degree of self-reported disaster preparedness was investigated with national 2008 data. Americans with a post-secondary degree were expected to be more prepared because of exposure to university emergency systems and because education may impact the degree to which individuals process risk-minimizing information. The ?2 procedure produced statistically significant associations between all disaster preparedness measures and post-secondary degree status. Logistic regressions confirmed associations between the dependent measures and a post-secondary degree status, with all measures producing statistically significant t values. Positive correlations between post-secondary educational attainment and measures of disaster preparedness were stronger for having an emergency plan (b = 0.789) and knowing where to get additional information (b = 0.755). Key words: disaster preparedness, emergency management systems, emergency notification systems, educational attainment, institutions of higher education DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0066


Article
Radiological dispersal events within urban environments: A general method of measuring the economic impacts
Antoine N. Munfakh, MS; David A. Smith, PhD; Daniel T. Holt, PhD; Leonard J. Kloft, PhD; Eric J. Unger, PhD; Jeremy M. Slagley, PhD
July/August 2011; pages 53-67

Abstract
A radiological dispersal device (or dirty bomb) is an affordable, feasible, and economically devastating option for terrorists. By using an input-output modeling technique, the authors present a general method to assess economic impacts resulting from the use of such a device that will aid researchers, government planners, officials, and key stakeholders. The authors extended previous efforts that focused only on direct effects, exploring the indirect and induced effects as well. In applying the method to the case of a mid-sized city, the authors quantified the area within the city with the largest impact, the central business district. More specifically, the detonation of a dirty bomb in this city’s central business district would cost approximately $1.4 billion and impact 860 firms in 270 distinct industries. In addition, approximately 18,000 people would be unemployed immediately following the attack, with an additional 113,000 people affected by the shift in the local economy as a result of indirect and induced effects. Key words: cost estimation, radiological dispersal event, level of impact analysis, planning DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0067


Article
A spatially accurate incident reporting system during the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster
Joshua D. Kent, PhD; Roy K. Dokka, PhD
July/August 2011; pages 69-79

Abstract
Disaster response to incidents such as the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill requires rapid access to comprehensive, consumable, and actionable data. Providing effective situation awareness requires data collection methodologies capable of account for the inherent spatial and temporal characteristics of the incident. However, data collection is often encumbered by complex technologies that require specialized knowledge for use. Consequently, these requirements can impede the effectiveness of disaster response. To compensate for these challenges, an easy-to-use and spatially accurate incident reporting system was designed for responders tasked with identifying the location and extent of oil infiltration within marshes and bays of south Louisiana following the disaster. This workflow was assembled around a Global Positioning System (GPS)-enabled digital camera capable of receiving positioning corrections from GPS reference networks. Images depicting oiled beaches, habitats, and wildlife were automatically georeferenced and displayed using common geographic data visualization applications. Whether uploaded to data servers or printed, the imagery was shared across a wide audience, fostering collaboration among all response agencies. Key words: situational awareness, global navigation satellite systems, geographic information systems, geovisualization, geotagging DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0068

Journal of Emergency Management
September/October 2011, Volume 9
, Number 5


Article
Editorial The shifting paradigms of a profession: Calming conflicts between homeland security and emergency management
Daniel W. Martin, PhD, CEM, CFM
September/October 2011; pages 11-18

Abstract
DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0069


Article
Addressing emergency response provider fatigue in emergency response preparedness, management, policy making, and research
Clark J. Lee, JD
September/October 2011; pages 19-29

Abstract
Fatigue in emergency response providers can compromise the effectiveness of any emergency response operation. Appropriate emergency response preparedness, management, policy making, and research efforts can mitigate the dangers posed by responder fatigue. This article focuses on the need for developing and implementing such efforts nationwide and considers existing resources, opportunities, and challenges for accomplishing this goal. Key words: fatigue, management, policy making, preparedness, research, responder DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0070


Article
Warning response on a university campus: Anticipating message confirmation behavior among undergraduate students
Gordon A. Gow, PhD; Tara K. McGee, PhD; Sharon Romanowski, MA
September/October 2011; pages 31-37

Abstract
An exploratory study was conducted at the University of Alberta to examine how undergraduate students might respond to an emergency alert on campus. Findings from the study were derived from an innovative methodology that used text messaging to prompt in situ observations on campus and to inform subsequent focus group discussions about students’ warning response decision making. Additional observations were also made based on a sample of messages posted on the social media platform Twitter following an actual campus alert issued in April 2010. Findings suggest that informal communication channels play a key role in shaping response decision making among students outside of classroom settings. In classroom and laboratory settings, however, faculty and teaching assistants may play a critical role in supporting confirmation of messages and influencing students’ response decisions. Recommendations for emergency planners are discussed, including the use of social media in support of official warnings and the development of "just-in-time" electronic resources for campus faculty and teaching staff. Key words: emergency notification systems, university, warning response, students DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0071


Article
Increasing preparedness for water utilities, local health departments, and first responders
Leonard W. Casson, PhD, PE, BCEE; Kevin M. Morley, PhD Candidate; Stanley J. States, PhD; John C.Watson, MD, MPH; J. Alan Roberson, PE
September/October 2011; pages 39-46

Abstract
A training program was developed by the American Water Works Association and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with financial support from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to bring together water utility personnel, their public health counterparts involved with epidemiology and outbreak investigation, and first responders. The objective of this training program was to help facilitate working relationships between each of the invited groups and to improve communication to better prepare for potential incidents involving physical destruction of critical water treatment and distribution facilities and/or potential intentional contamination of the public drinking water supply. This 2-day workshop was delivered in eight locations in the United States between 2004 and 2006. Representatives from 142 of the largest water utilities and 186 different public health departments received this training. In total, more than 550 individuals attended the 2-day workshop training series. The outcomes of this training program were numerous, and several important lessons were learned about how to develop, improve, and maintain relationships and communication between utilities, public health personnel, and first responders. These relationships and improved communication will allow these groups to better respond, remediate, and return utilities to normal operation following an incident. Key words: drinking water, security, public health, first responders, emergency response DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0072


Article
Implementing mobile geographic information system technology in North Carolina to enhance emergency preparedness: Evaluation of associated trainings and exercises
Jennifer Horney, MA, MPH, PhD; Steve Ramsey, BS, MPH; Mark Smith, PhD; Morgan L. Johnson, MPH; Pia D. M. MacDonald, MPH, PhD
September/October 2011; pages 47-55

Abstract
In 2004, the North Carolina Division of Public Health initiated the Rapid Response Project to incorporate geographic information system (GIS) technology into public health preparedness and response. In 2007, 17 local health departments (LHDs) received funding, training, and equipment from federal preparedness grant funds to increase epidemiology capacity through the spatial analysis and centralization of public health data. This article describes training and exercises associated with implementing mobile GIS technology at LHDs and presents evaluation findings from associated trainings and exercises. Participant surveys were used to conduct formative, process, and outcome evaluations to assess the effectiveness of training and exercise activities. Pretraining and post-training and exercise surveys were given to LHD staff who received equipment and attended a training course or participated in the statewide exercise. Differences in means between pretraining and post-training and pre-exercise and postexercise were evaluated using t tests. A total of 96 LHD staff completed the pretraining and posttraining evaluation. Fifty-two participants completed the pre-exercise and postexercise evaluation. After attending the 2-day training, participants reported significant improvements in knowledge and comfort using GIS-enabled computers for field data collection and accessing data and map layers from the state’s database (p < 0.05). Following the exercise, participants reported significant improvements in their ability to use GIS-enabled computers to respond to a natural disaster, bioterrorist attack, chemical spill, or a disease outbreak, as well as to perform a routine community health assessment. Enhancement of mobile GIS/global positioning system capacities of LHDs should improve the readiness of North Carolina in public health emergencies. Handheld computers with GIS were highly acceptable to LHD staff for use during routine assessments and emergency responses. Despite limited experience, LHD staff reported feeling more prepared to use mobile and wireless technology for sample selection, mapping, and data collection. Key words: GIS, public health, emergency, preparedness DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0073


Article
Using Experiential Learning Theory to design emergency preparedness training curricula
Ralph Renger, PhD, MEP; Shandiin Wood, MPH; Brenda Granillo, MS
September/October 2011; pages 57-63

Abstract
The goal of training is to improve the capability to better prepare, respond, and recover from an emergency. Much training is ineffective in transferring learning from the classroom to the field. One reason for this is that training tends to be cognitive or memory based, as opposed to experientially based. The purpose of this article is to show how Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) was applied to develop an emergency preparedness training curricula. After discussing the basic principles of ELT, the application of these principles is illustrated by way of a case example. Although the application of ELT is illustrated in the context of a public health emergency response curriculum, the steps in translating theory to practice are sufficiently robust to apply to the development of any emergency training curricula. Key words: training, preparedness, learning theory, experiential DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0074

Journal of Emergency Management
November/December 2011, Volume 9
, Number 6


Article
Leveling the emergency preparedness playing field
Nishamarie Sherry, JD, MPH; Anne Marie Harkins, JD
November/December 2011; pages 11-16

Abstract
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and other similar antidiscrimination laws have always required that comprehensive emergency preparedness programs implemented by government emergency management agencies address the functional needs of people with disabilities. In addition, the Department of Justice and the Federal Emergency Management Agency have issued extensive guidance regarding the application of Title II of the ADA to emergency preparedness initiatives. Nonetheless, emergency managers have hesitated to undertake inclusive preparedness initiatives due to lingering confusion over the type and nature of services that are legally required under the ADA and frustration over the perception that federal emergency preparedness guidelines set unrealistic and unattainable standards for compliance. This confusion is reflected in two recent cases brought against emergency managers in California and New York. Using the claims of those two cases as a backdrop, this article will lay the foundation for a better understanding of how the ADA and related emergency preparedness guidance interact and will discuss how the law and guidance together provide the best direction for emergency managers to practically implement inclusive emergency preparedness programs. Key words: ADA, disability, functional needs, special needs, FEMA, Department of Justice, guidelines DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0075


Article
Emergency water supply planning for the national capital region
Gregory Welter, PE, BCEE; Steven Bieber, MS, MPA; Heidi Bonnaffon, MS; Stuart Freudberg, MS
November/December 2011; pages 17-28

Abstract
This article summarizes the methods used to develop and document operational plans to address contingency conditions for large-scale failure of the public water supply system in an emergency for an urban/suburban metropolitan region. Operational plans were developed to address the following four critical water usage needs: 1) drinking water, 2) firefighting, 3) hospital facilities, and 4) general sanitation. The objective of the project was to identify readily implementable operational procedures that could be documented and distributed in advance to appropriate personnel and not requiring substantive capital improvements. In this article, there is an extensive use of figures from the emergency plan document. These are primarily examples of site plans annotated for use in water distribution and water collection operational fact sheets. The intent of this article and the accompanying graphics is to illustrate a practical approach to emergency water supply plan documentation. Key words: disaster management, disaster response, emergency management, emergency planning, environmental studies DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0076


Article
Challenges faced during a mass emergency notification system implementation
Muhammet S. Gulum, MS; Susan L. Murray, PhD, PE
November/December 2011; pages 29-38

Abstract
Objectives: Several events on university campuses in recent years have raised awareness about the importance of effective mass emergency notification systems (MENSs). These systems are developed to deliver critical information during life-threatening events. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a MENS implementation. Design: The Missouri University of Science and Technology (Missouri S&T) installed an MENS to notify the campus community of emergency information via phone, e-mail, short message service text, and instant messaging. Since then, the university has tested the system five times. The elapsed time to contact users and user confirmation rates were evaluated. Additionally, two surveys of 100 system users examined awareness, participation, and satisfaction. Participants: One hundred randomly selected individuals participated in each survey. Respondents were from across the campus and included faculty, staff, students, and community members who use the system. Conclusions: System test results indicate low confirmation rates of alerts sent via the MENS, although there was a slight improvement in the latest system test. The reasons behind this ineffectiveness are examined using on-campus surveys. The survey results illustrate that although students tend to recognize the MENS features, the lack of awareness and confidence in the notification systems may be the reason behind the low confirmation rates. Therefore, organizations should pay significant attention to both implementing the right MENS as well as creating awareness and emphasizing its importance. Key words: emergency notification systems, campus incidents, warnings, alarms, MENS DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0077


Article
From planning to action: Reflections on managing pH1N1 at a Canadian pediatric hospital
Cindy Bruce-Barrett, RN, BScN, MN, PMP; Marie Pinard, RN, BScN
November/December 2011; pages 39-46

Abstract
In response to the efforts taken for the management of pandemic H1N1, staff and leaders at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) questioned whether success can be attributed to years of skillful preparation or just plain luck. This article reports the outcomes of a series of debriefing sessions that were held with the staff after the second wave of the pandemic came to a close. Findings reveal strengths and opportunities in transforming pandemic planning into action. The results may help to inform others interested in refining their pandemic plans or to enhance their overall emergency preparedness for the future. Key words: pH1N1, pediatric, incident management, SickKids DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0078


Article
Senior adult emergency preparedness: What does it really mean?
John A. Staley, MSEH, PhD; Sonia Alemagno, MA, PhD; Peggy Shaffer-King, MA
November/December 2011; pages 47-55

Abstract
Objectives: The vulnerability of seniors in an emergency is a national priority, but preparedness level of older adults to respond to disasters is uncertain, particularly in those who may be socially isolated and lacking support mechanisms. The objective of this study was to query a sample of seniors across Ohio to determine how social isolation and other risk factors impact preparedness. Methods: Older adult Ohioans (1,496) participated in a preparedness survey; questions included readiness, knowledge of preparedness, emergency plans, medical conditions, and social isolation. Results: Analysis of self-reported preparedness indicated that seniors at the highest priority level (defined as socially isolated with medical and/or mobility impairment) were least likely to have items considered conducive to basic preparedness (eg, 3 day supply of food, manual can opener, and battery-operated radio). Additionally, rural senior adults were disproportionately most vulnerable among older adults. Conclusions: Seniors lack many provisions that considered necessary for home sheltering and sustainability during a disaster, and social isolation is directly correlated with preparedness levels of seniors. Future interventions should target social isolation and basic food, prescription, and medical preparedness needs of susceptible seniors. Key words: senior adult, disaster, preparedness, vulnerable, social isolation, elderly DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0079


Article
Preparedness for public health emergencies at hospitals under Department of Health in coastal area of Myanmar (Burma)
Nyan W. Myint, MBBS, MPH, PhD; Jaranit Kaewkungwal, PhD; Pratap Singhasivanon, PhD; Khin Win Thet, MBBS, MPH; Pornpet Panjapiyakul, PhD; Kamron Chaisiri, MPH; Pichit Siriwan, MD; Arun K. Mallik, MBBS, MD
November/December 2011; pages 57-73

Abstract
Objective: To assess the current preparedness for public health emergencies (PHEs) at the public hospitals in coastal area of Myanmar. Design: Cross-sectional design. Participants: The survey questionnaires were sent to 65 hospitals (25 percent of total hospitals) located in coastal area of Myanmar in 2010. The hospital directors from the respective hospitals were requested to provide information about the PHE preparedness within their responsible hospitals. Main outcome measure: Scores of each area of PHE preparedness derived from hospital directors’ responses were used to assess the differences between the current levels of preparedness against the referral criteria. Results: Forty of 65 hospitals returned completed questionnaires. Among the responded hospitals, 50 percent had PHE preparedness plan of which 37.5 percent linked with the community plan, 45 percent reported having review and revise the plan at least yearly, 65 percent had protocol for PHE, 85 percent had surveillance for diseases under national surveillance, 82.5 percent had emergency procurement of drugs and supply, 60 percent had isolation rooms, 47.5 percent had training for PHE in 2009 while 37.5 percent conducted drills during 2009, 30 percent appointed media responsible person, 42.5 percent had triage area, and 67.5 percent had evacuation arrangements for medical documents and patients records. The study results revealed that there were statistical differences at different referral levels of hospitals in capacity for planning (p < 0.01), resources (p = 0.03), communication (p < 0.01), and response (p = 0.02). Conclusions: This study suggested that preparedness for PHEs required capacity strengthening especially in the primary referral level hospitals to have an effective response to PHE. Key words: public health emergency, public hospitals Myanmar DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0080


Article
Impact of personal communication networks on emergency evacuation times
Patrick N. Morabito; Michael E. Long, PhD; Bernard P. Brooks, PhD; Jennifer L. Schneider, ScD
November/December 2011; pages 75-80

Abstract
Any large-scale anthropogenic or natural disaster, such as a chemical spill, terrorist attack, fire, hurricane, or flooding, impacts human behavior and vehicle movement in the affected area. The response of the affected population is driven by available information about the event. However, inattentiveness to public announcements via vehicle radios, listening to other audio media, and an initial lack of reliable information in the chaotic moments immediately after a disaster will result in an uninformed or misinformed public. For example, the sudden and unannounced nature of a disaster often results in uncertainty with regard to geographic location and extent of the event, resulting in inaccurate information worsened by inattention to public communication. Therefore, the uncertainties and lack of attention to the initial public announcements exacerbate the initial emergency response effort. The question of how the communication network might enhance or diminish the proliferation of information that would facilitate the evacuation of the population must be addressed. Consequently, the authors created a simple model of interpersonal communication via cell phones and their respective personal contact networks to begin a study of the role and impact of information as it passed rapidly through personal communication channels as individuals share in the context of initial repetitive public information during an evolving disaster response. The model demonstrates that increasing the access to mobile phones can significantly improve the speed and degree of success of evacuations. Key words: disaster site evacuation, cell phones DOI:10.5055/jem.2011.0081