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Journal of Emergency Management
January/February 2010, Volume 8
, Number 1


Article
No matter what: Ensuring the performance of essential functions through devolution plans
Michael Vesely, JD
January/February 2010; pages 13-23

Abstract
This article focuses on the role that devolution planning should occupy in an agency’s continuity planning effort. A devolution plan is an integral part of a Continuity of Operations (COOP) plan; however, many agencies do not expend the necessary time and effort to develop these essential plans. There are several reasons for this, including the difficult nature of the concepts at issue, as well as the practical challenges inherent with implementation of a devolution plan. This article gives a brief overview of COOP planning, with particular attention given to the reconstitution period. It then gives the definition of devolution and attempts to explain different ways that planners approach this issue, considering both internal and external devolution. Finally, the article reviews some of the core elements that should be included in every devolution plan. Key words: devolution, COOP, reconstitution, continuity, planning, worst-case scenario DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0001


Article
A conceptual model for determining the level of impact from a radiological dispersal event
David A. Smith, PhD; Daniel T. Holt, PhD; Audeen Fentiman, PhD
January/February 2010; pages 25-36

Abstract
Emergency managers’ responses to and during myriad crises are critical. Recovery actions, which affect both humans and the environment, are often guided by a risk assessment. Current risk assessment methods, unfortunately, address human health and ecological issues independently. We introduce a framework to guide the development of an assessment that spans precrisis and postcrisis periods. This framework is introduced by examining a nefarious event that could have a negative effect on human health and the environment—a radiological dispersal event initiated by terrorists. Through this example, a general method that allows the quick assessment of risk, comparison of options, and prioritization of recovery actions is explained. Key words: integrated risk assessment, level of impact, radiological dispersal event, terrorism DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0002


Article
The evacuation tail and its effect on evacuation decision making
Brian Wolshon, PhD, PE; Joe Jones, PE (BSCE); Fotini Walton (BS)
January/February 2010; pages 37-46

Abstract
Over the past decade, several major incidents have occurred in the United States that have demonstrated the need for a better understanding of the behaviors, characteristics, and requirements of persons traveling during emergency evacuations. In addition to numerous emergency management and preparedness organizations, the agencies charged with the review and approval of plans for emergencies associated with nuclear power plants have also taken particular interest in these issues. Through their support of evacuation-related research, entities like the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Emergency Management Agency are leading efforts to recognize and understand the lessons learned from evacuations associated with both natural and technological hazards so that they are not repeated in the future. One area of particular interest (and the one that is the focus of this article) is the segment of an evacuating population known as the “evacuation tail.”The evacuation tail is loosely defined as the last 10 percent of the population that departs during an evacuation. This group is of particular interest because the evacuees that make up the tail have been recognized to take a disproportionally longer amount of time to prepare and travel than the rest of the population. Depending on the specific characteristics of an emergency, such delays can put the tail population at a significantly elevated risk. In this article, the evacuation tail is described within the context of preevacuation activities and evacuee travel characteristics for the purpose of improving the overall evacuation process. It is thought that with this knowledge, the techniques and lessons learned from nuclear power plant evacuation planning can be applied to evacuations of any hazard type or location. Key words: evacuation, evacuation tail, emergency planning, nuclear power plant, travel behavior DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0003


Article
Protective security measures for major sport events: Proposing a baseline standard
Stacey A. Hall, PhD; Thomas Cieslak II, PhD; Lou Marciani, EdD; Walter Cooper, EdD; James A. McGee, MS
January/February 2010; pages 47-55

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to identify baseline protective measures for security management of major sport events. Baseline protective security measures are implemented as standard operating procedures (SOP) to serve as routine inspection for a facility. Security measures previously identified by Hall were assessed using a three-round Delphi survey and focus group study. Purposive sampling was used to select participants for the Delphi panel and focus group study. The Delphi panel (n = 15) composed of sport security management professionals with experience coordinating security operations at major sporting events. Twelve respondents completed all the three Delphi rounds. Rankings for security measures were assessed during Round 1, while importance ratings were assessed on a 5-point Likert scale during Round 2, and 3 of the Delphi study.A focus group study (n = 4) was conducted to validate the Delphi study findings and achieve consensus among key stakeholders.This study identified 33 baseline protective security measures in the following six categories: Physical Security, Technical Security, Access Control, Emergency Management,Training and Exercise, and Weapons of Mass Destruction. Key words: sport security, emergency planning, event management DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0004


Article
Improving relations between emergency management offices and nursing homes during hurricane-related disasters
Kathryn Hyer, PhD, MPP; Lisa M. Brown, PhD; Kali S. Thomas, MA; David Dosa, MD, MPH; Jennifer Bond, PhD; LuMarie Polivka-West, MSP; John A. Schinka, PhD
January/February 2010; pages 57-66

Abstract
Objective: To document the importance of the relationship of nursing homes to emergency management entities before, during, and after hurricanes, and the operational challenges that nursing homes face, the authors report the effects of eight Florida (FL) hurricanes on 689 nursing homes (70,000 beds) during 2004 and 2005. Design: Using a State Administrative data set of all nursing homes, the authors document the impact of the four major hurricanes on the homes’ ability to care for frail elders before, during, and after the storm. Supplementing State data are 257 self-reports from administrators on the impact of the hurricane on operations, resident care, and the importance of the relationship of the nursing home to local and state emergency operations entities. Setting: Nursing homes. Results: Almost one-third of all FL nursing homes either evacuated or sheltered residents from other facilities. No deaths during evacuation were reported for the 5,500 nursing home residents evacuated. Relationships with local emergency management offices prior to hurricanes were excellent, very good, or good for 58 percent of respondents. Regardless of the quality of the relationship, 80 percent of the respondents indicated that they would like to improve their relationship after 2004 season and 78 percent indicated they need to improve their disaster plans. Conclusions: This article highlights the importance of establishing an effective working relationship between nursing homes and local emergency management offices during all phases of disaster preparedness to ensure that nursing home residents are safe. Key words: nursing homes, residents, relationships with local emergency management entities, older adults DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0005


Article
Challenges in handling medical emergencies by ambulance drivers: A comparative study in two metropolitan cities in India
Biranchi N. Jena, PhD; Anuradha Dubey, MSc; Manoranjan Dhal, MBA
January/February 2010; pages 67-75

Abstract
An emergency or a disaster may occur at any time of the day or night, weekend or holiday, with little or no prior warning. Emergency service providers ensure public safety by addressing different emergencies. Drivers in the emergency vehicle often relate the efficient emergency management to quick access to the victim’s location, shorter time at the location, good support to the paramedics, and faster transport to definite care unit. The role of the ambulance drivers in emergency management is crucial, as reaching the victim quickly is more important than providing the prehospital care. The current research study attempts to understand the major challenges faced by the ambulance drivers in handling emergencies in cities. For this purpose, this study undertook a survey among the ambulance drivers of GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute, who are designated as pilots during November-December 2008 in the cities of Hyderabad and Ahmedabad in India. Data were collected from 27 pilots in Ahmedabad and 52 pilots in Hyderabad through a self-administered questionnaire. Congested street and nonavailability of lift facility were cited as the major problem in handling the emergencies in cities where the survey was conducted. A strong correlation was observed between floor numbers of the buildings and mean call to scene departure time to hospital, indicating difficulty in managing time during emergency in case of emergencies happening for residents residing at higher floor in a multistoried building. As floor number increases mean call to scene departure time also increases. It was found that in Ahmedabad the cooperation from traffic police and public was not satisfactory as compared to Hyderabad. Traffic police in Ahmedabad needs to be sensitized to help during heavy traffic and during critical vehicular trauma cases. In Ahmedabad, pilots cited that locating the proper address at night time was a problem. Since the study found that the on-scene time was more in case of victims at higher floors, it is strongly recommended to introduce trained volunteers or first responders to overcome barriers by opening locked outer doors, securing elevators, and providing directions to the patient’s location. Again with low public support during handling the emergencies, more public awareness on the role of escorts might lead to greater citizen involvement and shorter total response time. Key words: emergency, pilots, challenges DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0006


Article
The Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia and its aftermath: A continuing saga
Kai-Lit Phua, PhD
January/February 2010; pages 77-80

Abstract
The 1998-1999 Nipah virus outbreaks in Malaysia claimed more than 100 lives (40 percent case fatality rate) and nearly decimated the pig farming industry of the country. Three main groups of people (and their family members) were directly affected, ie, pig farm owners, feed mill owners, and pig farm workers. This article discusses how the crisis was managed--including mistakes made in its management--before the crisis, during the crisis, immediately after the crisis, as well as more recent developments. Key words: Nipah virus, Malaysia, aftermath, management DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0007

Journal of Emergency Management
March/April 2010, Volume 8
, Number 2


Article
Changing the nature of special needs: Utilizing a function-based approach to special needs planning
Colleen Clary, JD; Angelique Pui-Ka So, JD
March/April 2010; pages 11-19

Abstract
When preparing for emergencies, planners should be cognizant of individuals with “special needs.” Analyzing various governmental agencies’ definitions demonstrates a lack of general consensus on who should be considered “special needs,” thus making it difficult to accommodate these individuals in current emergency plans. Compounding this problem is the “list of lists” approach currently used by many emergency planners. This approach mistakenly seeks to define “special needs” by compiling lists of disabilities, rather than focusing on the functional limitations of individuals in a particular emergency. The result of the “list of lists” approach is that some individuals are counted more than once and some are not counted at all. This article advocates the adoption of a uniform, functional based approach, which is supported by disability advocates and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. This functional approach focuses on factors that limit a person’s ability to care for himself or herself during an emergency. This methodology provides for those who have special needs before, during, and after an emergency, by assessing their functional limitations based on five broad categories, namely: maintaining independence, communication, transportation, supervision, and medical care. After reviewing the benefits of adopting a functional approach and examining some preliminary considerations for functional based planning, this article advocates the adoption of a function-based approach to special needs planning to best serve the needs of these individuals during an emergency. Key words: special needs, functional based approach, emergency planning DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0008


Article
Preparing public school personnel to effectively respond to a large-scale crisis: Evaluation of an emergency management training
Korrie Allen, PsyD; Kelli England Will, PhD; Delon Brennon, MD; Michael P. Poirier, MD
March/April 2010; pages 21-33

Abstract
Objective: School administrators, teachers, and support staff are required to receive annual education and training regarding the implementation of emergency management procedures. School personnel recognize the importance of school safety and the majority of school systems ensure their plans are up to date as mandated by federal and state legislation; however, they rarely conduct comprehensive training and drills coordinated with local, state, or federal emergency responders due to limited time and funding. Methods: This study examined the impact of an emergency management program as a means of improving school responses to crises situations. A multidisciplinary team developed a comprehensive program to train all school personnel to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from situational crises that could occur in the school setting. The program infused current guidelines and theories of behavior change. A train-the-trainer model was used for dissemination, with school administrators and crisis management team (CMT) members from each school trained to educate all school personnel in their respective buildings. Results: One hundred sixty CMT members were trained to deliver the training to 950 school personnel. Comparisons of the pretest and post-test measures demonstrated that the train-the-trainer intervention significantly changed knowledge of policies and procedures, as well as school personnel’s perceptions of risk and efficacy regarding potential crises and their management. Conclusions: The significant finding of increased knowledge following the training among both CMT members and other school personnel indicates that the curriculum and train-the-trainer model had a positive effect. Key words: emergency management, public schools, training DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0009


Article
Emergency managers, allocation of radar resources, and policy implications: The intersection of weather hazards, population, and technology
Havidán Rodríguez, PhD; William Donner, PhD; Walter Díaz, PhD; Jenniffer Santos-Hernández, MA
March/April 2010; pages 35-44

Abstract
This article explores the end-user community’s knowledge and perception of severe weather events, warnings, and new radar technology. Particular attention has been paid to the advantages, problems, and limitations of current weather technology from the emergency manager’s perspective. Specifically, the authors focus on end-users’ recommendations regarding the allocation of the new radar resources that are being developed by the Engineering Research Center (ERC) on the Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA), which is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). In-depth interviews were conducted with members (n = 50) of the emergency management community in Oklahoma and National Weather Service (NWS) meteorologists with diverse experiences in disaster mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. On the basis of the results from the in-depth interviews, the authors generated seven broad categories that include the recommendations or factors that emergency managers and NWS personnel reported should be taken into account in the allocation of radar resources, including: (a) nature of the hazard event, (b) potential impact and outcomes of the hazard event, (c) lead time, d) false alarm rates, (e) population issues, (f) infrastructure, and (g) availability of other resources. Our findings suggest that respondents generally agreed that the type of hazard, its severity, and the potential impact and outcomes of severe weather events should play a primary role in the allocation of radar resources. However, there were some conflicts or concerns regarding the role that population size should and could play in the allocation of such resources. Key words: disasters, hazards, radar resources, technology, social sciences, emergency managers, population, weather DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0010


Article
The use of virtual simulators for emergency response training in the mining industry
Damian Schofield, BSc, PhD, PGCAP; Andrew Dasys, BSc
March/April 2010; pages 45-56

Abstract
By its very nature, underground mining can be a hazardous activity. The history of all countries where mining has taken place unfortunately often contains major disasters. The successful initial control of such incidents is crucially dependent on the effectiveness of the mine’s immediate emergency response and the mine’s emergency preparedness arrangements, which underpin this response. Emergency response is sometimes given a low priority in training planning because catastrophic events occur infrequently. The majority of mine emergency rescue training is traditionally focused on training the rescue teams. A number of computer augmented training systems have recently been developed to perform or assist all levels of mine personnel in the process of mine rescue training. Modern simulation systems range from tactile systems that physically represent the real world to purely computer generated visualizations. In a mining context, a primary aim of developing virtual environments is to allow mine personnel to practice and experience mine processes that will be encountered in the day-to-day operations at a mine site. This article provides a review of the use of such simulators in the mining industry and details current work being undertaken in Australia and Canada to develop the next generation of this technology in the mining field. This work is based on an extensive literature review and the insight and the experience of the two authors who have each worked in this field for more than 20 years. Key words: emergency response, virtual simulators, computer graphics, virtual reality, mining industry, mine disaster DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0011


Article
Exploring strategic plans to improve NIMS training and implementation for volunteer firefighters in Indiana
Phillip R. Dawalt Jr, JD, DPA (ABD)
March/April 2010; pages 57-73

Abstract
September 11, 2001, has caused considerable change in the landscape for first responders everywhere. Unfortunately, a significant group, volunteer firefighters, who make up more than 80 percent of firefighters both in Indiana and nationwide, have had a difficult time adapting to the new method of response to emergency incidents that have come about as a result of this tragedy, the National Incident Management System (NIMS). There is confusion and lack of communication between state and local groups who are involved in this effort. This study proposes an attempt to support volunteer first responders more effectively and efficiently by the development of a group to act as trainers and liaisons, with lines of communication between state officials and local volunteer emergency first responders. Such a plan to utilize another agency of volunteers to train and support volunteer firefighters, if put into effect, could actually improve the training and implementation of NIMS procedures during actual emergencies. In short, it could save lives. Key words: NIMS, training, volunteers DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0012


Article
Scandinavian comparison of selection and training of incident commanders in the fire fighting sectors
Morten Sommer, MSc; Ove Njå, PhD
March/April 2010; pages 75-86

Abstract
This article presents findings from a study designed to analyze the selection process and formalized training of incident commanders for fire fighting services in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. On the basis of a survey covering all fire services in the three countries and participant observations of commander education from a fire academy in each of the three countries, similarities and differences have been explored. Our main finding is that the similarities between the three countries are greater than the differences. As a general rule, individuals have many years of experience from the fire department through rising from fire fighter through all the ranks until their appointment as incident commander. There are two distinct career paths to the incident commander position. The first path is very practically oriented and the required reading is undemanding. The other path is more academic, for personnel holding a bachelor’s degree in fire engineering. In Sweden, engineers follow a comprehensive commander education, which Norway and Denmark could possibly benefit from. In addition, Sweden provides incident commanders with thorough technical/professional knowledge. Response coordination is given major emphasis in the education at highest level, but transfer of command is not a prioritized topic. Key words: incident command, selection, training, fire fighting DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0013

Journal of Emergency Management
May/June 2010, Volume 8
, Number 3


Article
Terrorism and US-sponsored microcredit program: Macroglobal returns
Marc Glasser, MS, CPP, CEM, CHS-V, MCAS; Chandrika Kelso, JD, PhD
May/June 2010; pages 9-15

Abstract
Terrorism continues to plague society, more frequently in some parts of the world and infrequently in other areas, and some of the root causes of terrorism have been linked to the lack of appropriate economic and social conditions. This social and economic vulnerability may be reduced through the establishment of US sponsored microcredit programs in the affected regions. US-sponsored microcredit programs could be made accessible and available to the young and unemployed, those most vulnerable to Islamic extremist terrorist recruitment or those who would otherwise participate in terrorist attacks against America or American interests. This program could replace lack of opportunity, despair and feelings of anti-Americanism with economic opportunity, hope, and empowerment resulting in an improved global image of America. The net result of a successful American-sponsored microcredit program would reduce the risk of an attack by Islamic extremist terrorist organizations on America as well as improve the lives, livelihoods and societies of those who participate and beyond. This article examines and evaluates the proposal of reducing economic and social vulnerability through an American-sponsored microcredit program; it also addresses the history and concept of microcredit, possible program pitfalls and financial considerations. Key words: terrorism, social, microcredit, economic DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0014


Article
Protection against liability for emergency medical services providers
Raymond K. Shin, JD, MPP
May/June 2010; pages 17-21

Abstract
Emergency medical services (EMS) providers must often provide medical assistance without adequate time and resources. To encourage EMS providers not to be fearful of negligence lawsuits when they provide treatment, many states have enacted laws that protect them from civil liability. However, these laws provide immunity only under certain conditions. This article describes these conditions under which the immunity statutes generally operate. Key words: liability, legal, negligence, emergency medical services providers, immunity DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0015


Article
The legal impact of emergency responders’ actions and decisions during interstate response and the need for a national immunity law
Steven E. Standridge, PhD Student
May/June 2010; pages 23-35

Abstract
Law enforcement, emergency medical, and fire service agencies are being increasingly scrutinized as never before. The legal implications of litigations such as Kershner v Burlington, Sanders v The Board of County Commissioners of the County of Jefferson, Colorado, and the Cedar Fire lawsuits are clear. Decision makers and the agencies they represent are being held liable for their actions and decisions. This may necessitate the crafting and implementation by national policy makers of a more uniformed nationwide immunity law to help protect responders from the patchwork of state laws that currently exists. This is particularly relevant in an era of cross state, regional, and federal mutual aid response where emergency workers are exposed to uneven immunity laws that expose them to significant legal ramifications. Key words: Columbine, immunity laws, litigation, mutual aid, first responders, Cedar Fire, Sanders v Jefferson County, Kershner v Burlington DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0016


Article
Improving notification and call-up of key players in emergencies through use of a commercial emergency notification system
Holly J. Carpenter, MS; David A. Edwards, PhD
May/June 2010; pages 37-45

Abstract
As a disaster unfolds, emergency management agencies are responsible for conveying critical information to the community of responders and affected parties to protect life, safety, and property. Automated notification systems provide a solution to the problem of getting information out to recipients rapidly. In early 2006, the Maricopa County Department of Emergency Management agreed to be the test department for the County’s new automated notification system Communicator!® NXT. This study measures and evaluates the system’s effectiveness from the perspective of people who received notifications during a County Flood Exercise in 2008. The system was proven to be of value in terms of getting critical information out quickly. Most people surveyed responded favorably to receiving notifications. Key issues included the following: (i) the need to balance the conciseness of messages with more useful content and (ii) the intelligibility of text-to-speech messaging. A need for future exploration of system functionality was discovered. Additionally, it was learned that the system needs regular testing and personnel need training to reveal the limitations and nuisances so that end users can provide input allowing modifications of the system to better meet their needs. A need for further education for message receivers was also identified so that end users can get the benefit of more accurate summary reports for confirmation of message receipt. Key words: automated notification, emergency notification system, text-to-speech DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0017


Article
Disaster planning for small- and medium-sized nonprofit organizations: Challenges and advantages
Tamara Klindt, MPH
May/June 2010; pages 47-55

Abstract
Increasingly, emergency managers are considering the role nonprofit agencies can play in improving readiness and response without giving equal consideration to what is needed to position these organizations to be able to assist. Nonprofit agencies must have comprehensive internal disaster plans if they are going to be able to offer external aid. What is being done to facilitate the development of quality disaster plans for small- and medium-sized local nonprofit groups? Disaster planning for small nonprofits has its own distinct characteristics. Primarily, these agencies must rely on publicly available material to guide them through the planning process. This project takes a preliminary look at what disaster planning information is publicly available and how that information can be used to develop an all-hazards disaster plan for a small organization. Through a review of publicly available planning material and the case study of a specific social service nonprofit agency, a picture begins to form of what is needed to provide a solid foundation for our community’s nonprofit organizations during large-scale emergencies. Key words: emergency planning, nonprofit organizations, Readiness DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0018


Article
Disaster recovery and business continuity planning: Business justification
Heather Brotherton, BA
May/June 2010; pages 57-60

Abstract
The purpose of this article is to establish the need for disaster recovery and business continuity planning for information systems. Today’s infrastructure and economic dependence upon information technology is highlighted as a basis for the requirement of disaster recovery and business continuity planning. This planning is stressed as a basic business requirement for any reputable information systems operation. The unique needs of information systems as well as the general background for the subject of disaster recovery and business continuity planning considerations are discussed. Contingency contracts, failover locations, and testing are recommended along with communication protocols. Key words: information systems, information technology, disaster recovery, business continuity DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0019


Article
Local emergency management systems in the United States and Korea
Kyoo-Man Ha, PhD, CEM; Ji-Young Ahn, MD
May/June 2010; pages 61-71

Abstract
The purpose of this article is to contribute to emergency management by systematically comparing the similarities and differences between the United States and Korean local emergency management systems and subsequently drawing related inferences. For this purpose, three major factors have been carefully compared: (1) local government and policy, (2) home and strategy, and (3) volunteers and activity in the two nations. The major tenets of this article are as follows: the United States has been managing local emergencies more comprehensively than Korea, although the United States has had its share of failures. Also, more American homeowners establish and practice family emergency plans. On the other hand, in Korea, the local government should try to deal with all types of emergencies. It is necessary for Korean homeowners to set up and practice emergency plans, recognize the different types of emergencies, and learn how to deal with them by incorporating interdisciplinary studies. In addition, volunteers should receive further systematic training in the communities, and at the same time the correlation between the extent of government support and the level of voluntary activity should be utilized. Key words: local emergency management, the United States, Korea DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0020

Journal of Emergency Management
July/August 2010, Volume 8
, Number 4


Article
Missing links: Connecting emergency management and the cultural heritage industry
Christina M. Crue, MS, CEM; Robin J. Clark, JD
July/August 2010; pages 9-16

Abstract
Cultural heritage is a source of community identity and local income, two elements that are necessary in any successful disaster recovery effort. The cultural heritage industry, however, has been historically underprepared for disaster events, as recent events demonstrate. This lack of preparedness may result in the loss of irreplaceable artifacts and lagging recovery efforts. It is time to remedy this lack of preparedness through emergency planning. Although the planning process for cultural institutions is similar to other types of emergency planning, some components are unique. This article outlines the elements of emergency planning particular to cultural heritage institutions and provides guidance for emergency managers and the cultural heritage industry so that they may develop emergency plans. Key words: emergency planning, museums, cultural heritage, risk assessment DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0021


Article
Preparing children for disasters: Evaluation of the Ready and Resilient program
Natasha Blanchet-Cohen, PhD; Rebeccah Nelems, MA
July/August 2010; pages 17-24

Abstract
This article demonstrates the value of integrating psychosocial programs for children and youth within emergency management responses, particularly in the context of natural disasters. This article presents the main findings of an evaluation of the Ready and Resilient (R&R) program, an interactive 1-hour workshop delivered to children living in disaster-prone areas, developed by Save the Children in response to the growing number of natural disasters in the United States. Beyond the collection of qualitative data, which included in-person interviews and a survey of adult observers, evaluation data are based on the results of a survey questionnaire administered to participants after the R&R workshop. The survey was administered in New Orleans summer camps to 305 participants. The total number of survey respondents supports a confidence level of 95 percent and a confidence interval of 5.33. Evaluation results show the workshop is meeting a significant need, including children who have experienced disaster in the past. Participants felt more prepared for disasters, equipped with new information, skills, strategies, and evacuation related tools. This notwithstanding, 55.4 percent of participants stated that they felt at least “somewhat” more worried about disasters since the workshop, suggesting the need for follow-up support to participants. The authors also identify the need for future research on long-term impacts, while realizing this is a challenge for research in emergency contexts. Key words: children, disaster preparedness, interactive workshop, evaluation DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0022


Article
Bridging the disconnect between development and disaster: A first step
Chad R. Miller, PhD; Ian A. Birdsall, PhD
July/August 2010; pages 25-36

Abstract
This article is an attempt to shed light on the development/ disaster disconnect highlighted by McEntire. Specifically, the authors examine how economic development influences the administration of transportation infrastructure rebuilding following a disaster. As economic development is a mixture of politics and economics, the authors use the Wamsley and Zald political/ economy analysis approach to frame the research. The authors examine case studies of post-Katrina reconstruction representing different organizational forms including CSX’s coast railroad, Mississippi Department of Transportation’s replacement of the Bay St. Louis Bridge, and the Mississippi State Port Authority’s rehabilitation of the Port of Gulfport to help understand how the political/economy context impacts the administration of the postdisaster rebuilding of transportation infrastructure. Finally, the authors develop hypotheses and recommend further research, including the possible expanded use of Kingdon’s policy stream theory, to further understand the administration of the rebuilding of transportation infrastructure in the wake of a disaster. Key words: Katrina, transportation infrastructure, economic development DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0023


Article
Pandemic influenza: The ethics of scarce resource allocation and the need for a hospital Scarce Resource Allocation Committee
Sandro K. Cinti, MD; A. R. Barnosky, DO, MPH; S. E. Gay, MD; S. D. Goold, MD; M. Lozon, MD; K. Kim, MD; P. Rodgers, MD; N. M. Baum, PhD; T. J. Blessing, JD; B. Cadwallender, MS, CSP, CPSM; P. Loik, RRT; C. Wright, MS; R. A.Winfield, MD
July/August 2010; pages 37-44

Abstract
In the event of a virulent influenza pandemic, certain resources including ventilators, antibiotics, vaccines, oxygen, hospital beds, and antiviral medications will need to be carefully allocated. It is essential that scarce resources are allocated in an ethical manner taking into account the patient’s individual right to competent care and a population’s right to the fair distribution of potentially life-saving treatments. This article summarizes the ethical basis for distributing scarce resources and the rationale for establishing a hospital-based Scarce Resource Allocation Committee, a system of multiple triage officers, and a Clinical Review Committee. Key words: pandemic, influenza, scarce resources, ventilators DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0024


Article
Water rescue management in suburban environments
Martin F. Helmke, PhD, EMT-B; Scott T. Davis, BA; Michael E. Degnan, BS; Daniel A.Wojton, BS; Gregory Witmer, BA, EMT-B
July/August 2010; pages 45-52

Abstract
Effective water rescue management requires careful assessment of historical data, prediction of future rescue locations, and proper allocation and deployment of resources to ensure effective and safe rescue operations in suburban environments. Emergency workers in suburban communities are faced with an increased probability of water rescues resulting from growing population and improved access to waterbodies. This study investigates 152 water rescues performed in suburban Chester County, Pennsylvania, between 2002 and 2008. Fifty percent of the rescues occurred during flood events and were characterized by many multiple, concurrent rescues. The remaining rescues were associated with recreational use of waterbodies and flooding of roadways due to inadequate drainage. In this study, the Water Rescue Probability Index (WRPI) is presented, which uses the spatial correlation of waterbodies, roadways, and population to predict water rescue locations. The WRPI predicted 88 percent of recorded rescues, demonstrating its use as a planning tool. Emergency managers should train and equip their first responders to national standards and must be prepared to use the National Incident Management System when large incidents occur. Key words: water rescue, hydrology, geographic information systems, population density, suburban watersheds DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0025


Article
Lessons learned from a pandemic influenza triage exercise in a 3D interactive multiuser virtual learning environment—Play2Train
Jaishree Beedasy, PhD; Rameshsharma Ramloll, PhD
July/August 2010; pages 53-61

Abstract
Practicing drills and exercises to improve individual and team performance in real physical hospital settings often requires lockdown of the healthcare center, and effects on real patients are unpredictable. A virtual triage exercise was developed around a pandemic influenza scenario and was carried out in a 3D interactive virtual environment. Without putting real patients or participants at risk, the environment allowed geographically dispersed first responders and hospital staff to practice their roles in a common setting. The results showed that the exercise produced perceived improvements in preparedness competencies and team interactions. Key words: virtual exercise, emergency training, Play2Train, preparedness, triage, virtual environment, MUVE, MUVLE DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0026


Article
Dynamics of cyclone evacuation behavior among southwestern coastal residents in Bangladesh: A case study of cyclone Sidr
Jalal Uddin, MSS
July/August 2010; pages 63-71

Abstract
Cyclone Sidr struck the southwestern coast of Bangladesh on November 15, 2007, resulting in 3,406 deaths and damaged properties of about US $1.7 billion. Despite the government’s sincere efforts, thousands of coastal residents did not comply with the evacuation orders. This article attempts to identify the sociodemographic factors affecting evacuation choices during the cyclone. Following systematic random sampling technique, a total of 384 heads of household was surveyed in the southwestern coast of Bangladesh. The bivariate results indicate that single women, older residents, people with small possessions, and people with higher level of education and occupation are more likely to evacuate. Moreover, level of education, household’s status of food security, trust in cyclone warning, and perceived severity of cyclone are also found as significant predictors of evacuation choice. Trust in cyclone warning has been found as the single best predictor. This article recommends improvement in the cyclone warning system, establishment of more public cyclone shelters, and implementation of different campaigns in coastal areas to increase the use of public shelters. Key words: evacuation behavior, sociodemographic factors, cyclone Sidr DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0027

Journal of Emergency Management
September/October 2010, Volume 8
, Number 5


Article
Redefining regional planning
Preeti V. Emrick, JD; Kimberly L. Nagel, MA, CEM
September/October 2010; pages 9-16

Abstract
In the wake of recent disasters including September 11, 2001, and the 2005 hurricane season, regional planning has become a high priority. Despite the 2007 release of the National Preparedness Guidelines, improving regional collaboration has continued to be a significant challenge and remains immeasurable. Regional operational plans are ineffective during disasters because of the differing goals of the jurisdictions within that region. It is evident that regions should be formed naturally based on how jurisdictions usually interact with each other. Regional planning is ineffective today because the federal funding process does not promote regional planning as a main goal. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) identified Expanding Regional Collaboration as a National Priority; however, DHS does not effectively target this priority with grant money. To accomplish true regional collaboration, it is important to remember that all disasters are local. The federal government has become highly reactionary to major incidents and has forgotten this basic truth. Federal policies are built from the top down and do not effectively facilitate the traditional decentralized system of emergency management. The overhaul of existing systems to conform with national policies has resulted in less effective planning and disaster response. Regional planning needs to incorporate local jurisdictions and define their roles and processes. Local operational plans must be developed in concert with each other. Plans created for the region should be regional coordination plans. Additionally, the grant money must be tied closer to the National Priority of Expanding Regional Cooperation. Key words: regional planning, planning, DHS, grants, national preparedness guidelines DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0028


Article
Human performance modeling for emergency management decision making
Susan L. Murray, PhD, PE; Kashmeera Ghosh, MS; Mala Gosakan, MS
September/October 2010; pages 17-26

Abstract
Objective: Computer simulation models allow users to analyze problems and identify improvements. Human performance models (HPMs) are a type of computer simulation model that is used to study and evaluate complex operations involving humans completing tasks. This article describes the advantages that HPMs can have for those involved in emergency management. Design: IMPRINT Pro is an HPM software tool developed by the US Army Research Laboratory. It is a stochastic discrete-event network modeling tool. The modeling process includes defining tasks to be completed, the personnel responsible for performing the task, the success probability for each task and the operation as a whole, resource availability and limitations, and other features to evaluate scenarios. The results include easy-to-use task network diagrams and corresponding performance metrics. The models can be used as a preplanning and training tool to improve an organization’s performance. Setting: To demonstrate the benefits of simulation modeling for emergency management, a case study of a combined anthrax and bomb threat made at a university is presented. Data from first responders including police and fire departments and the procedures used are modeled. Results: The case study shows the complexity of many emergency management situations. Human performance modeling is a powerful tool that can provide insight to different possibilities in these complex situations and can predict outcomes without having to go through an actual emergency event or costly drills. Computer modeling saves money, time, and efforts for emergency managers and responders. These models serve as useful training and evaluation tools. Key words: emergency management, human performance modeling, IMPRINT, terrorist attack, computer simulation DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0029


Article
Crisis preparation, media use, and information seeking during Hurricane Ike: Lessons learned for emergency communication
Jennifer A. Burke, PhD; Patric R. Spence, PhD; Kenneth A. Lachlan, PhD
September/October 2010; pages 27-37

Abstract
This study was a replication and extension of a previous work that examined crisis preparation, information-seeking patterns, and media use in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. A quantitative survey study was undertaken to examine the same variables after Hurricane Ike. Surveys were collected from 691 Hurricane Ike evacuees. Respondents were more likely to have an evacuation plan or emergency kit than those displaced by Katrina, and older respondents were less likely than younger respondents to have an emergency kit in place. Women, African Americans, and older respondents indicated a greater desire for information, with African American respondents desiring information concerning government responses, evacuation efforts, and rescue operations. Television and interpersonal exchanges emerged as the most commonly used sources for information. The findings are discussed in terms of pragmatic implications for emergency management practitioners regarding message design and placement. Key words: crisis communication, information seeking, race, gender DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0030


Article
An evaluation of local incident command system personnel in a pandemic influenza
Andrew Branum, BA, BS, MS (Student); J. Eric Dietz, PhD, PE; David R. Black, PhD, MPH
September/October 2010; pages 39-46

Abstract
In 2008, 68 counties in the State of Indiana participated in functional exercises funded by the Indiana State Department of Health to evaluate local pandemic preparation and response. As a part of the exercise tasks, counties were asked to develop an Incident Command (IC) structure for the county as well as qualified personnel who would fill each position. By examining the individual structures, it was discovered that at the local level, no clear type of personnel was being used. This study will display the results of the findings by uniquely categorizing the local level IC personnel structure used in these exercises into three study-defined types: normal command, specialized command, and unified command. By looking at the various effectiveness aspects of each type of personnel structure, this study will provide consideration, with possible strengths and weaknesses, for effective IC use based upon selection of IC personnel. The results will allow localities to better modify their command to adjust to a pandemic emergency. Key words: emergency response, pandemic influenza, incident command, local health department DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0031


Article
Age, gender, and information-seeking patterns following an urban bridge collapse
Patric R. Spence, PhD; Kenneth A. Lachlan, PhD; Lindsay D. Nelson, MA; Ashleigh K. Shelton, MA
September/October 2010; pages 47-54

Abstract
Previous research suggests that mediated information seeking may be especially strong during crises and other times of uncertainty, however, little is known about sex differences in both information seeking and responses under these conditions. The current study explores these differences using data collected from Minneapolis residents following the I-35W bridge collapse. Key words: information seeking, media, crisis communication DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0032


Article
New technology applications in hazardous materials operations
Jill L. Drury, ScD; Mark Micire, MS; Holly A. Yanco, PhD
September/October 2010; pages 55-71

Abstract
The authors have been investigating novel ways to apply technology to enhance response to fast-paced, complex, hazardous materials (HAZMAT) incidents. Although there are many uses of Global Positioning System, Radio Frequency Identification, simple radio frequency transmitter/sensor devices, and multitouch display technologies, these technologies have only made their way into the HAZMAT community in limited ways. Based on an investigation of the technology needs of HAZMAT responders, the authors developed an approach to combine these technologies to address the observed safety, situation awareness, and efficiency shortfalls. This article describes the proposed approach and provides the results of an investigation into its acceptance and likely utility. During low fidelity prototype-based user tests and structured interviews, certified HAZMAT responders gave high scores to the usefulness of the proposed functionality and its likely helpfulness in maintaining safety. Key words: emergency response, low-fidelity prototyping, user testing, information technology, HAZMAT DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0033


Article
Effect of an interferent on the performance of two direct-reading organic vapor monitors
Ryan F. LeBouf, PhD; Alan Rossner, PhD; Judith B. Hudnall, BS; James E. Slaven, MS; Catherine C. Calvert, BS; Terri A. Pearce, PhD; Christopher C. Coffey, PhD
September/October 2010; pages 72-80

Abstract
Direct-reading organic vapor monitors (DROVMs) are widely used by industrial hygienists and emergency responders as survey tools for the assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in occupational or emergency response settings. Although these monitors provide real-time information for expedient decision making, their utility in determining compliance with specific exposure limits is not well established. In addition, other VOCs that may be present in the same environment can act as interferents and adversely affect performance. This study assessed the effect of an interferent (hexane) on the performance of two representative commercially available monitors when measuring cyclohexane. The instrument readings were compared with concentrations measured with sorbent tubes, a standard compliance monitoring technique. Infrared-based concentration measurements were more precise at the two middle challenge concentrations (144 and 289 ppm), indicating a shift in instrument precision at the low and high end of the recommended operating range. Both photoionization detection and infrared-based concentration measurements were affected by the presence and amount of hexane in the test atmosphere. Emergency response personnel and industrial hygienists should be aware of the limitations of DROVMs in the assessment of hazardous situations involving VOCs. Key words: interferent, organic vapors, monitors, direct reading DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0034

Journal of Emergency Management
November/December 2010, Volume 8
, Number 6


Article
Establishing human rights protections in postdisaster contexts
Jessica L. Hurst, JD
November/December 2010; pages 7-14

Abstract
Postdisaster environments are proven battlegrounds for human rights violations, and a binding international instrument speaking directly to the right to postdisaster human rights protections is a critical and necessary strategy in international disaster response and recovery efforts. This article encourages the development of an international instrument crafted to specifically address human rights protections in postdisaster contexts, founded in international human rights law and policy, and invoking the authority of international law bodies, which can also be used to further refine US emergency response policy. Key words: postdisaster environments, human rights, emergency response policy DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0035


Article
News reporting of the January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake: The role of common misconceptions
David Alexander, PhD
November/December 2010; pages 15-27

Abstract
The Haiti earthquake of January 12, 2010, was one of the worst seismic disasters of the last half-century. Given the severity of damage to infrastructure and the gravity of the humanitarian crisis, it was particularly difficult for journalists to report the situation accurately during the early stages of the crisis. In relation to the Haitian catastrophe, this article considers 10 misassumptions that commonly appear in news reports about disaster. They include “myths” about the inevitability of disease, the prevalence of panic, and the need to impose martial law. Behind the misassumptions is a widely disseminated but wholly inaccurate model of the breakdown of society, which is greatly at variance with the observational definition by sociologists of the postdisaster “therapeutic community.” This article concludes that the misassumptions are, at least in part, alive and well. Some of the less responsible news media enthusiastically propagated them without checking the reality on the ground in Haiti. However, there are signs that at last the more thoughtful media are prepared to question the myths of disaster. In part this is clearly because influential people in the humanitarian relief effort have made a special effort to make journalists aware that certain notions are misassumptions—for example, that unburied dead bodies give rise to disease epidemics. Nevertheless, it is not yet clear whether we are entering a new age of more responsible reporting of disasters by the mass media. Key words: news reporting, journalism, earthquake, disaster, emergency relief, misconception, Haiti DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0036


Article
Perceptions of emergency management in US cities: A survey of Chief Administrative Officers
Christopher G. Reddick, PhD; Dianne Rahm, PhD
November/December 2010; pages 29-43

Abstract
This article provides data drawn from a survey of 131 Chief Administrative Officers (CAOs) in the 200 largest US cities. Much of the existing policy research on emergency management has focused on the extent of collaboration between and across government units and the civil sector. This study focuses on CAOs’ perceptions of risk, the use of information technology, and emergency management program management. This study analyzes the differences in the views of CAOs. Those who see their cities at particular risk of terrorist threat and/or natural disaster view the aspects of risk, technology, and program management differently than do CAOs who do not believe they are at heightened risk. Key words: emergency management, survey research, local government, management, performance DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0037


Article
Keeping food safe during an extended power outage: A consumer’s perspective
Sandria L. Godwin, PhD; Richard J. Coppings, PhD; Katherine M. Kosa, MS; Sheryl C. Cates, BS; Leslie Speller-Henderson, MS
November/December 2010; pages 44-50

Abstract
Most Americans live at risk of experiencing a natural disaster. Such disasters are often accompanied by power outages, sometimes for extended periods. Six formal focus groups were conducted, two in North Carolina and four in Tennessee, to assess consumers’ food safety knowledge and practices during extended power outages. Forty-seven adults of various ethnicities, ages, and genders participated in the focus groups held in libraries, extension offices, or other community centers. Participants’ knowledge of safety precautions that should be taken during and after a power outage and the actions that participants had taken to be prepared for a possible power outage in the future were evaluated. Few participants were prepared for their most recent extended power outage, and most participants had not taken additional measures to prepare for a future outage. To determine the safety of food during or after a power outage, some participants relied on their senses. Barriers to not following recommended practices included not being aware of specific recommendations, not believing specific recommendations, procrastination, cost, and limited space for storing emergency supplies. Motivators to following the recommended practices included having concerns about contracting foodborne illness, believing the messages, and having recently experienced an extended power outage. It was concluded that few consumers were prepared to keep their food safe during an extended power. In anticipation of a natural disaster that may cause an extended power outage, food safety educators should work with the media to provide information to consumers on actions they should take to prepare for an extended power outage. Key words: food safety, power outages, consumer preparedness DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0038


Article
Hurricane Gustav: Disassociation as evidence of organizational learning
Nadene N. Vevea, MA; Robert S. Littlefield, PhD
November/December 2010; pages 51-63

Abstract
This study explored the messages of crisis leaders and the media portrayal of those leaders during the early stages of Hurricane Gustav. A textual analysis of 105 articles drawn from the New York Times and the Times-Picayune of New Orleans dated August 29 to September 3, 2008, revealed the use of organizational learning, image restoration, and renewal strategies by crisis leaders and media use of positive terms clustered around the Hurricane Gustav crisis, with negative terms limited to comparisons with and references to Hurricane Katrina. The findings suggested that the crisis leaders’ effective management of Gustav showcased organizational learning, while the media’s comparisons of Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Gustav reflected a positive media bias toward Gustav crisis leaders and the effectiveness of their crisis management strategies. Key words: Hurricane Gustav, crisis communication, image restoration, organizational learning, renewal DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0039


Article
Location and analysis of emergency management Points of Distributions for Hurricane Ike
Christopher A. Chung, PhD; Charles E. Donaghey, PhD
November/December 2010; pages 65-72

Abstract
On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike caused massive destruction along the Gulf Coast of the United States. In response to subsistence shortages caused by infrastructure damage, government officials opened 26 Points of Distributions (PODs) to distribute food, water, and ice. To analyze the accessibility of these PODs, a Microsoft Windows software program POD Locator was developed by the researchers. This program calculated the average distance of each area residents’ home location to the closest of the 26 PODs to be 6.41 miles. In comparison, POD Locator identified an alternative set of 26 PODs with an average distance of 3.71 miles for an average reduction in travel of 46 percent. POD Locator also identified the fact that similar performance to the actual 26 PODs was achievable with only 10 PODs. Key words: PODs, hurricane, emergency DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0040


Article
System dynamics modeling to optimize emergency responders’ emergency and nonemergency efforts: Case study of Air Force Bioenvironmental Engineering combating weapons of mass destruction response capabilities
Robert Schmidtgoessling, MS; Jeremy Slagley, PhD; Michael Shelley, PhD; David Smith, PhD
November/December 2010; pages 73-79

Abstract
Objectives: The authors applied a system dynamics model to the problem of optimizing the balance of emergency response training with routine work tasks using a case study of US Air Force Bioenvironmental Engineering units. Design: A system dynamics model was constructed using available work time inputs for emergency response training and routine task execution. The model generated estimates of task proficiency for emergency and routine tasks. Setting: The study was conducted using a case study of management of US Air Force Bioenvironmental Engineering units. Main outcome measures: The model generated estimates of task proficiency (0-100 percent) for emergency and nonemergency tasks based on time allocation policy inputs. Results: The optimal balance to maintain both emergency and nonemergency task proficiency at or above 70 percent was to have an intensive 2-week period of 35 h/wk devoted to emergency response training, followed by a constant 21 h/wk (52.5 percent of available effort) to emergency response training. Conclusions: The results reinforce the popular notion that an organization with a significant amount of effort devoted to routine tasks that differ from emergency response tasks will not be able to approach 100 percent readiness task proficiency without significant degradation of routine task proficiency. Synergy of routine task selection to enhance readiness proficiency is essential to maintain emergency response capabilities. Key words: Bioenvironmental Engineering, task management, system dynamics, emergency response training DOI:10.5055/jem.2010.0041