Journal of Emergency ManagementAbstracts
Journal of Emergency Management ®

Publications

American Journal of Disaster Medicine

Journal of Opioid Management

Opioid Management Society
Opioid Education Programs

Journal of Neurodegeneration & Regeneration

Activities Directors' Quarterly for Alzheimer's & Other Dementia Patients

American Journal of Recreation Therapy

Journal of Emergency Management

Healing Ministry

Advertising information

Subscription information

Reprint information

Manuscript submission

Current table of contents

Contact information


Journal of Emergency Management
January/February 2007, Volume 5
, Number 1


Article
Perspective on people. Challenges to regionalization of emergency management
Neil Simon, BS, MA; Sanford Altschul
January/February 2007; pages 11-14


Article
The next 5,000 years of disasters: Presumed threats and solutions
Gunnar J. Kuepper
January/February 2007; pages 15-22


Article
When terrorism comes to school: Better planning through a focus on key functions, not scenarios
Michael Dorn, MSM; Chris Dorn
January/February 2007; pages 23-27

Abstract
The 2004 terrorist attack on Russian schoolchildren, teachers, and parents in Beslan shocked the conscience of the world. Clearly, there are lessons to be learned from this and other atrocities. However, there is a dangerous tendency to focus too much on past terrorism scenarios when deciding how to address future terrorism concerns for our schools. While it is always crucial that we examine previous events and learn from them, our extensive research, training, and formal work experience in the field of antiterrorism in schools shows that an excessively scenario-driven approach is affecting many communities. This article explores how using a reality-based, functional approach to school antiterrorism measures will yield better results than in-depth analysis of previous instances of school-related terrorism. Key words: school, antiterrorism, drill, public safety, scenario-driven approach, all-hazards approach


Article
Improving shadow evacuation management: Case study of the Graniteville, South Carolina, chlorine spill
Jerry T. Mitchell, PhD; Susan L. Cutter, PhD; Andrew S. Edmonds, MS
January/February 2007; pages 28-34

Abstract
Facilitating evacuations is a primary aim of disaster management. While under-response to evacuation orders is a typical problem, over-response, or a shadow evacuation, also poses serious problems and should be minimized when possible. This case study of a chlorine spill was designed to evaluate the differences in evacuation behavior between those faced with an evacuation order versus spontaneous, voluntary evacuees. We found that a significant shadow evacuation developed, and we believe that the addition of geographic specificity to the warning message may have limited the scope of the over-response.


Article
Disasters and people with disabilities
Chris Kearns, MS; Bill Lowe, PhD, EFO, EMT-P
January/February 2007; pages 35-40


Article
Meeting the needs of pregnant women and babies in a disaster: The role of voluntary nongovernmental health organizations
Amy A. Peterson, BS, MA; Scott D. Berns, MD, MPH; Judith S. Gooding, BA; Capi A. Landreneau, MSW; Jennifer L. Howse, PhD
January/February 2007; pages 41-46

Abstract
Pregnant women, lactating women, and babies, especially sick and extremely fragile premature babies, have special needs during a disaster and in its aftermath. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that strive to improve the health of babies can help meet the needs of pregnant women and babies in a disaster. These NGOs, like the March of Dimes, are not disaster relief organizations; therefore, their primary aim in disaster preparedness, as well as during a disaster and in its aftermath, is to work with disaster planning groups to ensure, through advocacy and education, that the immediate and ongoing needs of pregnant women and babies are met. If necessary in an extreme disaster, NGOs can also provide some direct services to help meet the needs of pregnant women and infants, as the March of Dimes did after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Key words: nongovernmental organization, infants, mothers, pregnant women, healthcare, disaster, relief, aid


Article
Preparing nurses for a radiological terrorism incident: A case-study approach
Andrea Jennings-Sanders, DrPH, RN
January/February 2007; pages 47-52

Abstract
Like most disasters, radiological terrorism incidents can strike a community with very little warning. Nurses working in community settings need to be prepared to manage such an event and to work collaboratively with other professions. The Jennings Disaster Nursing Management Model is one tool that can assist nurses in their preparation and management of radiological terrorism incidents. Being prepared for disasters can have a significant impact in reducing healthcare and other disaster-related costs.


Article
Warning response
Lynn A. Freeman, BS, MSc
January/February 2007; pages 53-57


Article
Review of the Kumbakonam school fire in India: Lessons learned
Ajinder Walia, PhD; Sujata Satapathy, PhD
January/February 2007; pages 58-62

Abstract
A school fire at a government-aided school in Kumbakonam, India, killed 93 children and injured 21 on July 16, 2004. The school was tailor-made for a disaster, with its narrow stairway, poor lighting, thatched roof, kitchen in close proximity of the school building, past incidences of minor fire breakouts, and only one collapsible exit in the classroom. Strong winds and an absence of teachers on the day of the tragedy added to the vulnerability of the school, leading to the disaster. The government responded to the situation effectively by providing adequate physical relief and rehabilitation to the parents of the deceased children and to injured students. The government was supported by various nongovernmental organizations and the corporate sector, which rose to the occasion. Psychosocial counseling was also carried out for the affected parents. Various recommendations resulting from analysis of the event include developing comprehensive district and school disaster management plans using a multihazard approach, ensuring the safety of the school, instituting a proper psychiatric referral system for the affected, counseling the injured and rescued students to facilitate their relocation in different schools, training teachers and all others involved in school management in disaster management, and educating students about fire safety in school.


Article
Emergency relief in floods: Are we meeting the demands of affected women?
Bilqis A. Hoque, PhD; R. Bradley Sack, MD; S. Khanam, MA; S. Hossain, MCom; Mabooba Karim, MS; Shazzadul Arif, BSc (Engg)
January/February 2007; pages 63-64

Journal of Emergency Management
March/April 2007, Volume 5
, Number 2


Article
Newsbriefs
March/April 2007; pages 12-12

Abstract
NGA CENTER releases Homeland Security guide. FY 2007 EMPG Allocations.


Article
Living, leaving, and dying for New Orleans— an insider’s perspective on Katrina
William Monfredo, PhD
March/April 2007; pages 13-21

Abstract
This article discusses Hurricane Katrina’s meteorological setting and history, surrounding evacuation issues, and aftermath. The author, who lived in New Orleans for more than three years, taught and researched climatic hazards at the University of New Orleans, and was no stranger to evacuations, began driving to Tucson 18 hours before Katrina’s landfall and returned five months later. The article raises important considerations, including recommendations for the future. The results of flood-damage surveys conducted in Lakeview and the Lower Ninth Ward districts of New Orleans reveal an intriguing aspect: unlike in Lakeview, which filled with water over a period of hours, intense and widespread flash flooding occurred east of the Industrial Canal, yielding damage similar to that from an F4/F5 tornado. Perhaps more importantly, the article explores various reasons for why some people from these areas did not or will not evacuate when faced with imminent danger. Analyzing the events leading up to and following Katrina’s landfall can help us understand how such senseless tragedy resulted from several fatal flaws: denial, woeful preparation, and poverty. Given that Gulf Coast residents now live within a climate pattern of enhanced hurricane frequency and intensity compared to the three-decade period pre-1995, the best advice for those asked to evacuate is to just say yes. While this piece reads as a more personal account than most on the subject, it is hoped that it offers an intriguing perspective on the cultural issues impacting evacuations. Key words: flood, hurricane, Katrina, New Orleans, storm surge


Article
The effect of planning, training, and exercises on citizen preparedness
Judy L. Harmon
March/April 2007; pages 22-26


Article
Wind-missile impact capacity of essential facilities
Nur Yazdani, PhD; Perry Green, PhD; Saif Haroon, PhD
March/April 2007; pages 27-40

Abstract
Windborne debris during a hurricane may cause damage to building façades, resulting in significant economic losses and injury or death. Recent building codes have adopted variations of the large-wind-missile impact test in order to certify roof/wall components for hurricane resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of commonly used Florida wall and roof assemblies under enhanced large-wind-missile impact testing, beyond the basic test specified in the Florida Building Code. Relevant standards specify similar enhanced standards for essential facilities and shelters. Based on a thorough literature review, a list of wall and roof assemblies that had not been tested before was selected. Wall assemblies included wood and metal framing systems and concrete panels. Roof assemblies included metal framing systems and concrete panels. A comprehensive list of wall and roof assemblies that passed the enhanced test was developed. Assemblies that should be avoided in the construction of essential facilities were also noted.


Article
Strategic planning for emergency managers
Rhonda Sturgis, EdD
March/April 2007; pages 41-48


Article
Implementing a Common Alerting Protocol for hazard warning in Sri Lanka
Gordon A. Gow, PhD
March/April 2007; pages 50-56

Abstract
The Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004 and the false warnings and evacuations of March 2005 associated with the Great Nias earthquake highlighted the need not only for a sophisticated tsunami detection system in the region but also for a means to disseminate warning messages to local communities at risk. To be effective, local warning requires an interconnected system of diverse communication technologies which in turn require integration through a common data interchange format, such as the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP). The CAP standard was developed and introduced in 2004 to facilitate the interoperability of hazard warning technologies, but it has yet to be widely deployed, especially in less developed countries. This article presents preliminary findings from an ongoing study that involves the implementation of the CAP standard to support a local all-hazards warning system in Sri Lanka. In particular, it describes the challenges of implementing a CAP-based information system for managing multilingual warnings across a set of five technologies in 32 tsunami-affected villages along the southern and eastern coasts of Sri Lanka. Key words: public alerting, Common Alerting Protocol, tsunami, Sri Lanka

Journal of Emergency Management
May/June 2007, Volume 5
, Number 3


Article
The principles of emergency management
William L. Waugh, Jr., PhD
May/June 2007; pages 15-16


Article
Learning in emergency management
David A. McEntire, PhD; Abraham David Benavides, PhD
May/June 2007; pages 17-18


Article
A framework for consensus, cooperation, and progress: The role of Canada's Council of the Federation in building a national strategy for emergency management
Brock Holowachuk, MA
May/June 2007; pages 19-24

Abstract
In July 2004,Canada’s Premiers expressed their priorities for emergency management at a meeting of the Council of the Federation. Provincial/territorial officials developed a set of priorities through a process of discussion and consensus, and these were subsequently endorsed by the Premiers and accepted by the federal government, resulting in the development of a plan of action to address the Premiers’ priorities, along with other matters of mutual concern. This article discusses the process by which a provincial/territorial consensus was formed, and how this executive direction has led to a plan of action and meaningful improvements to emergency management and public safety in Canada. It demonstrates how a proactive and cooperative approach to emergency management policy can lead to tangible operational improvements. Key words: Canada, consensus, intergovernmental, policy, national


Article
Carbon monoxide poisoning from devices used in disaster recovery
Rosalyn Lemak, MPH
May/June 2007; pages 25-32

Abstract
Carbon monoxide (CO) is responsible for more fatalities in the United States each year than any other toxicant. While CO exposure is a year-round problem, fatal and nonfatal CO exposures occurred more often during the fall and winter months, and the majority of nonfatal CO exposures were reported to occur in the home. Postdisaster CO poisoning is an emerging hazard. Unintentional CO poisonings have been documented after natural disasters like hurricanes, floods, ice storms, and power outages. Overwhelmingly, CO exposure results from common sources such as portable generators, gas grills, kerosene and propane heaters, pressure washers, and charcoal briquettes. Although disaster events are thought to create victims immediately and in great numbers during the initial impact, some disasters are more deadly to people during the recovery phase, when people are thinking the disaster is over. More are injured during the cleanup phase than from the storm itself. Key words: CO poisoning, disasters, disaster recovery


Article
Measuring the efficacy of a wildfire education program in Colorado Springs
Geoffrey H. Donovan, PhD; Patricia A. Champ, PhD; David T. Butry, PhD
May/June 2007; pages 33-37

Abstract
Drought conditions in much of the West, increased residential development, and elevated fuels from a century of wildfire suppression have increased wild-fire risk in the United States. In light of this increased risk, an innovative wildfire risk education program in Colorado Springs was examined, which rated the wildfire risk of 35,000 homes in the city’s wildland-urban interface. Evidence from home sales before and after the program’s implementation suggests that the program was successful at changing homebuyer’s attitudes toward wildfire risk, particularly preferences for flammable building materials. Key words: Colorado Springs, education, risk, wildfire


Article
The effectiveness of NOAA Weather Radio as an all-hazards alert method in Eastern Loudoun County, Virginia
Michael A. Manning
May/June 2007; pages 39-48

Abstract
This article examines the results of a study to deter-mine the effectiveness of NOAA Weather Radio as a method of all-hazards public alert in Eastern Loudoun County, Virginia, and identifies the primary obstacles to be overcome to improve system effectiveness. Key words: NOAA Weather Radio (NWR),all-hazards alert, Emergency Alert System (EAS),Loudoun County, communication, public information

Journal of Emergency Management
July/August 2007, Volume 5
, Number 4


Article
Editorial Pandemic preparedness and response: The role of medical interventions
Ann Peterka, DO, MPH
July/August 2007; pages 13-16


Article
The historical challenges facing emergency management and homeland security
David A. McEntire, PhD
July/August 2007; pages 17-22

Abstract
This article discusses thirteen challenges facing emergency management and homeland security. These include the tension between national security and the all-hazards approach, apathy, the disconnect between development and disasters, the subsidization of risk, the paper plan syndrome, a reactive approach, a first-responder orientation, limited budgets, insufficient personnel, heavy work loads, political appointees, poor management, and politics. The article concludes with a discussion and recommendations for the future. Key words: Disaster policy, emergency management, homeland security, challenges, and future opportunities


Article
Ready, aye ready? Support mechanisms for healthcare workers in emergency planning: A critical gap analysis of three hospital emergency plans
Carol A. Amaratunga, PhD; Tracey L. O’Sullivan, PhD; Karen P. Phillips, PhD; Louise Lemyre, PhD; Eileen O’Connor, PhD; Darcie Dow, MSc; Wayne Corneil, ScD
July/August 2007; pages 23-38

Abstract
Background: In response to the 2003 global out-break of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS),and the threat of pandemic influenza, Canadian hospitals have been actively developing and revising their emergency plans. Healthcare workers are a particularly vulnerable group at risk of occupational exposure during infectious disease outbreaks, as seen during SARS and as documented/reported in the recent National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses (Statistics Canada,2006).Approximately one third of Canadian nurses identified job strain and poor health, related to their work environment. Three years after SARS, this article presents a critical analysis of the gaps of three hospital pandemic influenza plans in the context of established organizational supports for healthcare workers. Methods: Hospital pandemic influenza plans were obtained from institutional representatives in three Ontario cities. Qualitative gap analysis of these plans was conducted using a checklist of 11 support categories, developed from a review of existing literature and findings from a previous study of focus groups with emergency and critical nurses. Results: Support mechanisms were identified in the plans; however, gaps were evident in preparation for personal protective equipment, education, and informational support, and support during quarantine. Hospital emergency planning could be more robust by including additional organizational supports such as emotional/psychological support services, delineating management responsibilities, human resources, vaccine/anti-viral planning, recognition/compensation, media strategies, and professional development. Conclusions: Since the 2003 SARS outbreak, hospitals have invested in pandemic planning, as evidenced by the comprehensive plans examined here. Organizational support mechanisms for healthcare workers were included in these hospital plans; however, the gaps identified here may have serious implications for employee health and safety, and overall response during a large scale infectious disease outbreak. The authors provide a number of recommendations for consideration in infectious disease pandemic plan development to better support the healthcare workers in their roles as first responders. Key words: healthcare workers, occupational health and safety, infectious diseases, bioterrorism, organizational support, disaster management, hospital, pandemic


Article
Floodplain creep and beyond: An assessment of next-generation floodplain problems
Leora S. Waldner, PhD
July/August 2007; pages 39-46

Abstract
Since the 1970s,local jurisdictions have made great strides in protecting their floodplains through land use ordinances. Jurisdictions that joined the National Flood Insurance Program have prohibited structures in the regulatory floodway, and several jurisdictions have gone a step further, prohibiting structures in the 100-year floodplain. What next? If local governments are successfully keeping structures away from floodplains, have they adequately addressed floodplain issues—or do other problems remain unaddressed? This research examines Atlanta-region counties, and uncovers four potential next-generation problems, including the following:(1)floodplain creep(expansion of the floodplain) resulting from increased impervious surfaces and development;(2) the unrestricted development of homes in the 100-year floodplain of small dams;(3) cumulative riparian effects of cut and fill practices; and (4) lack of information for prospective homeowners of floodplain-burdened property. Key words: Counties, development, floodplain, floodplain creep, land use management, ordinances


Article
Putting young children on disaster maps: The challenges of child care data integration
Elizabeth F. Shores, MAPH; Jamie Heath, BA; Erin Barbaro, MA; Michael C. Barbaro, MA; Cathy Grace, EdD
July/August 2007; pages 47-56

Abstract
Objective: To determine the capacity for and degree of data sharing, for the purpose of emergency preparedness of the child care sector, among child care agencies and between child care agencies and emergency management agencies in 12 states. Design: Survey of federal and state child care agencies; evaluations of federal and state datasets; analysis of hurricane and earthquake risk areas; analysis of US Census Bureau data on population aged 0-4 years in counties. Setting: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas. Subjects, Participants: Not applicable. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Feasibility of merging five or more early childhood services datasets from each state. Results: Little data sharing occurs within or between the two sectors in the 12 states under study, putting at least 2 million children under school age at risk of being overlooked in disaster response and effectively excluding the child care sector from state recovery plans. Conclusions: Improved data sharing among agencies within the child care sector and between the childcare sector and the emergency management sector is crucial to mitigate the risks for children aged 0-4 and to include them among vulnerable populations that receive top priority in first response, as well as to include the child care sector in economic redevelopment after major disasters. Key words: early childhood services, child care, Head Start, family child care homes, license-exempt child care, prekindergarten, early childhood emergency preparedness


Article
Geocoding and GIS analysis of displaced populations
Joshua R. Vest, MPH; Jessie Patton-Levine, BS; Adolfo M. Valadez, MD,MPH
July/August 2007; pages 57-63

Abstract
Disasters resulting in mass displacement have ramifications for communities beyond the affected areas. Information on the community from which individuals were displaced may prove useful for government agencies and those providing assistance to the individuals fleeing the disaster. TIGER/Line® street centerline files and online mapping applications were used to produce geographic information on households displaced by Hurricane Katrina to Austin, TX. Overall, 88.2 percent of the displaced households were geocoded. Households were described according to census tract characteristics, New Orleans wards, and location with-in flooded areas. Combining geographic datasets is useful for planners in assessing the needs of displaced populations. Data access was not a barrier to a high match rate, and current Internet-based technology maybe utilized to overcome potential unfamiliarity with disaster stricken locations. Key words: Public health, disaster, evacuation, sheltering, geographic information systems

Journal of Emergency Management
September/October 2007, Volume 5
, Number 5


Article
Editorial. How can emergency managers address our warming climate? Relying on the basics—An essay
Bob Freitag, MUP, CFM
September/October 2007; pages 11-13

Abstract
Global warming is changing our world dramatically and generating new risks. We, as emergency managers, need to accept the science and begin applying our unique set of tools to the problem—the same risk reduction approaches that we apply to earthquakes, floods, and terrorism. We have the capabilities to reduce risk, maybe not by addressing the change agency, but by focusing on identifying and reducing the adverse impacts. And, funding may be available.


Article
Editorial. National Weather Service Storm-based (polygon) Warnings
Steven J. Naglic, MS
September/October 2007; pages 14-16

Abstract
On October 1, 2007 NOAA’s National Weather Service began a major service change. Short-term warnings for tornadoes, severe thunderstorms, flash floods, areal floods, and marine hazards have migrated from being issued for entire counties, parishes, or zones to those that are more geographically specific. The stormbased polygon system will make possible the warning of small portions of individual counties or adjoining counties, and as a result only warn that portion of the population that will be impacted by the storm. Key words: polygons, storm-based, warnings


Article
A case study of the law enforcement/emergency medical services response to the Virginia Tech mass casualty incident on April 16, 2007
Matthew Lloyd Collins, PhD
September/October 2007; pages 17-24

Abstract
The April 16, 2007, shooting rampage on the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) campus, carried out by Seung-Hui Cho, was the worst gun-related massacre in the history of the United States. The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it examines the emergency management literature on interagency communication, collaboration, and coordination as it relates to the Virginia Tech mass casualty incident (MCI). Second, the article presents a single instrumental case study that focuses on the bounded case of the Virginia Tech MCI. Through multiple sources of data collection to include observations, interviews, and document analysis, this study found that 14 law enforcement agencies and 13 emergency medical services agencies responded to the Virginia Tech MCI. With only two exceptions, the law enforcement agencies involved in the response to this MCI responded informally or self-deployed (arrived without being dispatched). However, all of the emergency medical services agencies that responded were formally dispatched. Lessons learned from the emergency management literature review and the case study will be discussed. In conclusion, policy recommendations, which will be generalizable to other rural university campuses and rural organizational settings, will be made. Key words: mass casualty incident, Virginia Tech, shooting


Article
Plans require participation: Disaster recovery plans are ineffective without people
Cristina M. Delgado, BA, FFMA
September/October 2007; pages 25-32

Abstract
Decision-making authorities throughout both the public and private sector invest substantial amounts of time and money into developing a recovery plan. Yet, some organizations fail to address who will execute the plan and how. Employee needs are not always being addressed and, as a result, many groups find themselves lacking support after a disaster. Operational restoration is jeopardized and this often affects the financial and psychological make up of a business. There are methods that help in identifying employee sensitivities. Once there is a solid understanding about recruiting the right recovery team, certain strategies promote adequate training and manpower. Essentially, people are behind every stage of emergency management. To produce desirable outcomes, material resources must combine with human resources. Key words: human resources, disaster recovery, emergency management, business continuity, volunteers, business planning, municipal planning, building recovery planning


Article
Emergency management and homeland security curricula: Contexts, cultures, and constraints
Thomas E. Drabek, PhD
September/October 2007; pages 33-42

Abstract
During the past three decades, emergency management has become more professionalized. An important part of this transformation has been the explosive growth in higher education of programs designed to provide the fundamental knowledge and skills required of emergency managers. Following the September 11, 2001, attacks, however, curricula reflecting homeland security issues and competencies also have been established. Some have proposed that these program areas should be better integrated. Following a brief summary of the historical context in which these developments occurred, key points of culture clash are identified. It is concluded that future faculty and administrative initiatives will be constrained by these cultural differences and deflected by future governmental policies, disaster events, and other external factors. Key words: emergency management education, homeland security education, professionalism in emergency management


Article
Time required to notify 9-1-1 with automated collision notification systems
Alan J. Blatt, BS, Meng; Dietrich Von Kuenssberg Jehle, MD, FACEP; Anthony J. Billittier IV, MD, FACEP; David G.Wagner, MD; Jill Schleifer-Schneggenburger, BS, Meng
September/October 2007; pages 43-49

Abstract
Background: Automated Collision Notification (ACN) systems reduce emergency response time to a vehicular crash by immediately alerting a Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) of the collision and its details. Methods: An operational field test was performed to evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of the CAN system: a total of 874 vehicles were equipped with ACN systems and, for a period of 29 months, all collisions involving these vehicles were included in a study of the automatic notification time. Fifteen collisions of ACN-equipped vehicles registered with a PSAP. Both the time for the ACN notification to be received and the time for a traditional method of notification to be received were recorded for each crash. Results: The ACN notified a PSAP of a collision in an average time of 74.2 seconds and between 79.9 and 456.1 seconds sooner than a traditional notification method (paired mean difference 95 percent confidence interval). Conclusion: The ACN system significantly improves emergency notification time to a motor vehicle crash. Key words: automated collision notification (ACN), global positioning system (GPS), public safety answering point (PSAP)


Article
A model for the development of volunteer resources: The East Hampton ocean rescue unit
Mike Tracey
September/October 2007; pages 51-53

Abstract
This article is an illustration of a success story involving the development of the first all-volunteer lifeguard ocean rescue unit in the North east United States. Developing and managing volunteers is one of the most pressing topics being taught throughout the emergency management field. Successful programs often elude Local Communities; this article spotlights a model for success. Key words: emergency preparedness, volunteer resource development, mutual aid


Article
On-site information sharing for emergency response management
Lili Yang, PhD, MSc, BSc, MBCS, CITP
September/October 2007; pages 55-64

Abstract
Emergency response to any man-made or natural disasters involves different organizations—such as fire and rescue service, emergency medical services, law enforcement (police forces), and responders from other governmental and nongovernmental organizations. Information sharing and management among these responding organizations is essential for the success of the emergency responses, not only during a disaster but also before and after the disaster. Information sharing among different organizations cannot occur overnight and must be in place before a disaster occurs, be able to be easily used during the disaster, and be maintained after the disaster. In this article, information sharing requirements and features for emergency response are discussed before an information sharing infrastructure is proposed. It is particularly expected to enable the response organizations to efficiently communicate with each other in the charged and high-pressure atmosphere of an on-going disaster response. On-site information collection is suggested to be carried out through wireless sensor networks (WSN) and radio frequency identification (RFID). The key technologies for securing information sharing in emergency response management are identified. Our ongoing project SafetyNET is described to illustrate the implementation of the information sharing system. Key words: emergency response, information sharing, wireless sensor network, RFID, Internet

Journal of Emergency Management
November/December 2007, Volume 5
, Number 6


Article
Editorial Risk communications and its importance in disaster management
Brendan Patrick Gill
November/December 2007; pages 11-16

Abstract
During the onslaught of hurricane Katrina on the gulf coast of the United States in August 2005,localemergency planning officials, state agencies, and federal entities came together to impress upon those still left in the danger zone to evacuate. Unfortunately, more than100,000 people remained in the danger area because of various reasons. In this piece, the author will examine Protective Action Recommendations, proper and poor risk communications, and the need for emergency management officials to keep the pulse of those that they serve. Key words: protective action recommendations, communications, FEMA, NOAA, New Orleans, Katrina


Article
Mission possible: A failure mode and effect analysis of the Federal Emergency Management Agency
Jeff Nelson, MS; Kiril Hristovski, PhD, MS; Danny Peterson, PhD, CEM
November/December 2007; pages 17-28

Abstract
In its report pertaining to the performance of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) during Hurricane Katrina, the US Senate recommended replacing FEMA with a bigger and better organization. Instead of replacing FEMA as a whole, an attempt should be made to scientifically identify and correct any significant gaps within the organizational and operational structure of FEMA based on FEMA’s current mission requirements under the National Response Plan. This article demonstrates the use of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) methodology for identification, analysis, measurement, and prioritization of the systemic root causes for FEMA’s inadequate mission performance during disasters of Katrina’s magnitude. The article also provides suggestions for the most effective corrective action models for the top five high-risk functions at FEMA identified and prioritized using FMEA. Key words: emergency management, FEMA, FMEA, Hurricane Katrina


Article
Protecting the functionality of airports during disaster responses—Natural disasters, accidents, and pandemics
James Fielding Smith, PhD, PE, Captain USNR (Ret.), MASCE; Sandra Sue Waggoner, BA, EMT-P, EMSI; Arthur Rabjohn, DipEP; Avi Bachar, BGen (Ret.)
November/December 2007; pages 29-39

Abstract
Airports are important assets during disaster response. Traditional roles as command posts, shelters, temporary hospitals, and alternative communication hubs were filled by airports after Hurricane Katrina and for 9/11 flight diversions. The basic the-sis of this article is that airports need special measures to preserve functionality (continuity of business)during response and recovery. The second thesis is that sound emergency management measures should be built into airports as a type of mitigation. This article applies qualitative analysis to historical case studies, plans, documents, and scenarios for use of airports during disasters. It focuses on policy, procedural, organizational, and operational measures to protect the functionality during responses. Key words: airports, COB, COOP, disaster, response, functionality, protection


Article
Bridging emergency management: A professional assessment of the Minneapolis bridge collapse and other infrastructure failures
Daniel W. Martin, MA, CEM, CFM, MASCE
November/December 2007; pages 41-44

Abstract
To many in the emergency management profession, the Minneapolis bridge collapse was an epic event that has raised the situational awareness of our crumbling infrastructure. Although this event provided insight to the emergency management community, the vast majority in the civil engineering profession has long recognized the failing integrity of our aging and overburdened infrastructure and the cataclysmic result of its failure. The Minneapolis bridge collapse is a result of the failure, as a profession and a society, to proactively raise awareness of all hazards and to address emerging threats. These hazards include those risks that are created by our technological advances and lack of essential maintenance of these vital national assets. Key words: proactive, infrastructure, failure, Minneapolis, ASCE, emergency, management


Article
The Laboratory Response Network: Its role in times of disaster
Isaac D. Montoya, PhD, CHS, CLS, CMC; Olive M. Kimball, PhD, EdD
November/December 2007; pages 45-52

Abstract
The Laboratory Response Network (LRN) was established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Today, the LRN is charged with the task of maintaining an integrated network of state and local public health, federal, military, and international lab-oratories that can respond to bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, and other public health emergencies. The more than 150 laboratories that make up the current LRN are affiliated with federal agencies, military installations, international partners, and state and local public health departments. Laboratories in the network may accept samples from hospitals, clinics, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, other law enforcement groups, emergency medical services, and the military and other agencies. All of the LRN laboratories use the same protocols and validated methods to ensure rapid and certain identification of dangerous biologic agents that cause anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, brucellosis, and other illnesses. Key words: bioterrorism, Laboratory Response Network, terrorism, terrorism response


Article
Community ready! Assessing and meeting the needs of parents in Arlington County, VA
Marina S. Moses, DrPH, MS; Donna S. Caruso, RN, MSN; Timothy G. Otten, MPH; Sam Simmens, PhD; Tee L. Guidotti, MD, MPH
November/December 2007; pages 53-60

Abstract
In March 2006, three elementary schools, composed of at least 50 percent Latino populations, were selected in Arlington, VA, to participate in a multi-tiered survey to evaluate parents’ emergency preparedness needs. This article describes how to identify vulnerable populations and tailor specific information and services to their public health needs. An oral survey was administered to parents in their preferred language, English or Spanish, regarding their questions, concerns, preferences, and needs pertaining to public health emergency preparedness. Major themes that emerged included the need for language and culturally sensitive preparedness information; the merit of using established community venues for parents to gather; and the importance of using group specific preferred modes of information dissemination. Significant differences were observed between English speakers and Spanish speakers’ perceived vulnerability, level of preparedness, and preferences for acquiring information. An important similarity that presented itself was that all parents surveyed regard the public school system as safe, trustworthy, and best suited for providing public health preparedness information to the community. Based on this study, an innovative model is being developed called Community Ready! which will be an all-hazards approach to public health preparedness outreach that will be reproducible in other municipalities and school districts. Key words: community, preparedness, Latino, school, emergency, public health


Article
Hurricane evacuation behavior in domestic and international college students: The influences of environmental familiarity, expressed hurricane evacuation, and personal experience
Xueqin Elaine He, MS; John P. Tiefenbacher, PhD; Eric L. Samson, MSIS
November/December 2007; pages 61-69

Abstract
This study examines the cultural variation of risk perception and attitudes toward emergency evacuation. Although evacuation behavior is a direct consequence of perceived risk, few attempts have been made to consider the cross-cultural differences of evacuation behavior. This article compares domestic American and international university students’ familiarity with their residential environments, their expressions of intent to evacuate in advance of hurricanes of varying strength, and their personal experiences with hurricanes and evacuations by examining related variables. Logistic regression was used to analyze the 2007survey data. Results indicate that international students are more familiar with their residential risk conditions than domestic students. Environmental familiarity correlates positively with students’ certainty of future evacuations. The expressed likelihood of evacuation under voluntary order also correlates positively with international and domestic students’ certainty of future hurricane evacuation. Past disaster and evacuation experiences contribute to international students’ certainty about future responses, but do not affect those of domestic students. Experiences with false alarms determine domestic students’ certainty more than international students’ future behaviors. Evacuation experiences associated with Hurricane Rita, 2005, increased all students’ certainty of future hurricane evacuation. Key words: university students, hurricane evacuation, cross-cultural comparison


Article
Impact of school closings on hospital staff absenteeism: A case study
Nathan Timm, MD; Jacqueline Grupp-Phelan, MD, MPH; Joseph M. Kroner, MSN, RN
November/December 2007; pages 70-72

Abstract
Objective: Determine the impact school closings during snow emergencies have on hospital nursing absenteeism. Design: Retrospective case-control study. Setting: Large urban tertiary-care children’s hospital. Participants: Inpatient nursing staff. Main outcomes measured: Absenteeism rates due to lack of child care during snow emergency dates. Results: There is a statistically significant difference between nursing absenteeism due school closings compared with control dates (p = 0.01);however, the overall impact on hospital nursing staff availability is minimal (0.4 percent). Conclusions: Short-term school closings durings now emergencies do not result in significant rates of nursing absenteeism due to lack of child care. Key words: nursing, absenteeism, schools