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Journal of Emergency Management
Winter 2004, Volume 2
, Number 1

USFA advocates development of incident management teams Changes in traffic control devices to help older drivers, pedestrians, bicyclists, workers Increased dependence on internet increases susceptibility to cyberattacks
Winter 2004; pages 9-10

The "all-hazards" approach must be continued
William L. Waugh, Jr., PhD
Winter 2004; pages 11-12

Sounding board
The jigsaw puzzle of emergency planning
Charles C. Mayo, MA
Winter 2004; pages 13-15

Coordinating investigations: Can we walk and chew gum at the same time?
Tee L. Guidotti, MD, MPH
Winter 2004; pages 16-18

The future of emergency management
Jane A. Bullock; George D. Haddow
Winter 2004; pages 19-24

The discipline of emergency management (EM) is at a critical crossroads. Emergency managers around the world are faced with new threats, new responsibilities, and new opportunities. This paper examines the organizational changes made by the US federal government in shaping the new Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and presents three key lessons learned during the past decade that could guide emergency planners as they design and manage EM organizations of the future.

An overview of the "new" emergency management
Robert O. Schneider, PhD
Winter 2004; pages 25-28

Developing a professional standards model for the fire service
Christopher P. Riley, MS; Linda D. Sarbo, PhD
Winter 2004; pages 29-34

While police agencies have well-established internal affairs processes, professional standards units (PSUs) are rare in fire service agencies with fewer than 1,000 employees. In response to increased public scrutiny and growing concerns about liability issues, fire service agencies are implementing PSUs. This study was designed to develop and validate a prototype professional standards manual for fire service agencies. We reviewed professional standards divisions in fire service and police departments, and interviewed representatives of selected agencies to establish parameters for successful PSUs. Based on this review, a professional standards model was developed. For validation, the prototype was submitted to four fire service professionals for review and comment. Their comments were supplemented by phone interviews and incorporated into the model.

DVATEX: Navy medicine’s pioneering approach to improving hospital emergency preparedness
Mary W. Chaffee, ScD(h), MS, RN, CNAA, FAAN; Shauneen M. Miranda, RN, MS, MPA Robert M. Padula, MHA, BS, CHE, PC; Mark R. Lauda, MS, BS; John E. Skelly, BS, EMT-P
Winter 2004; pages 35-40

The level of emergency preparedness considered adequate for hospitals prior to the events of 9/11 is no longer sufficient. To analyze and improve emergency preparedness in Navy healthcare facilities, the US Navy Medical Department has established the Disaster Preparedness, Vulnerability Analysis, Training and Exercise (DVATEX, pronounced ‘dee-va-tex’) program. The four-stage program includes a hospital or clinic self-assessment, a site visit to each Navy hospital and clinic (during which a team of emergency preparedness experts trains staff, performs a vulnerability analysis, and conducts an exercise of the facility’s emergency management plan), development of an after-action report, and ongoing support to improve preparedness (Figure 1). In its first year, the DVATEX program has been successful in identifying hospital vulnerabilities, applying remedies, and developing long-term plans to improve preparedness.

A model of organizational recovery
Rick Allen, PhD; Francine Toder, PhD
Winter 2004; pages 41-45

Organizational recovery refers to the process of recuperating from the disruption caused by a traumatic event. It is a flexible process based on planning that aids in recovering from disasters while minimizing lost revenues, addressing the welfare of employees, and providing a model of recovery for the business community. This article reviews community models, and focuses on selected primary pre-incident and event variables that affect recovery, as well as a model of organizational recovery that can improve the survivability of organizations.

Transition from response to recovery after the Lancaster, TX, tornado: An empirical description
David M. Neal, PhD
Winter 2004; pages 47-51

Disaster researchers and disaster managers have relied upon various depictions of disaster phases for their professional activities, but there has been little empirical examination of these phases. This paper looks at when response activities started and ended and when recovery efforts began following a tornado. The data indicate that the transition from response to recovery is not a discrete event; rather, soon after response activities were initiated within the community, recovery efforts were also started. Although disaster phases provide an effective way to organize data and actual events, they need much further empirical and theoretical examination if they are to be an important component of disaster research and disaster management.

Mass decontamination: Why re-invent the wheel?
Dennis K. Sullivan, CEM, CHMM
Winter 2004; pages 52-54

Journal of Emergency Management
Spring 2004, Volume 2
, Number 2

Volunteer coordination centers: Building community response capacity
William David Brown, MS
Spring 2004; pages 14-16

Disconnects between expectations and deliverables among emergency responders
Richard Besserman, MD, MS; Danny Peterson, PhD, CEM; Dan Johnston, CEM, MPA; Cmdr. Lyle Rodabaugh, MS
Spring 2004; pages 17-22

Tenets of vulnerability: An assessment of a fundamental disaster concept
David A. McEntire, PhD
Spring 2004; pages 23-29

This article reviews academic findings on disaster vulnerability and provides 15 tenets about this fundamental concept. Research is taken mainly from sociologists but also include findings from other disciplines. The study uncovers what is known about vulnerability and stresses the importance of this concept for those interested in disaster reduction.

Reassessing materials for use by persons with special needs to expediently shelter in place
William C. Metz, PhD; Nick Malik, PhD; Edward Tanzman, JD; Scott Filer
Spring 2004; pages 30-40

Living in the “new normal”
Neil Simon
Spring 2004; pages 41-46

Hazardous materials and emergency management: A primer on hazmat law
Joseph F. St. Cyr, MPA, JD, CEM
Spring 2004; pages 47-51

Fire truck crashes with apparatus driver fatalities: Fatality Analysis Report System (FARS): 1991-2000
Steven L. Proudfoot; Edward L. Husting, PhD, MPH
Spring 2004; pages 52-56

Journal of Emergency Management
Summer 2004, Volume 2
, Number 3

Product news
Summer 2004; pages 9-10

FEMA publishes new book on fire mitigation. New SDS for PosiChek3TM audible alarm testing. Biosystems introduces line of economical, reusable personal care gas detectors. AOSafety introduces QuickFitTM full facepiece respirator. RAE releases highly sensitive, wireless VOC detector.

Perspective on People: People-related aspects of emergency management
Neil Simon, BS, MA
Summer 2004; pages 14-16

Current emergency medical services workforce issues in the United States
Brian J. Maguire, MSA, EMT-P, DrPH; Bruce J. Walz, PhD
Summer 2004; pages 17-26

A précis on political theory and emergency management
Richard T. Sylves, PhD
Summer 2004; pages 27-32

This article is a short overview of political and public management theory in emergency management. The work applies the dichotomous public management theories of Jefferson and Hamilton to emergency management. The establishment of emergency management as a profession, the bureaucratic politics of the field, principal agent theory, and codification/diffusion of knowledge are discussed.

Case study of a chemical fire in an urban neighborhood: A wakeup call for the emergency response system
Alexandra Degher, PhD; Anna K. Harding, PhD
Summer 2004; pages 33-42

In August 1992, a fire occurred at a computer circuit board manufacturing facility located in South Phoenix, Arizona, in which toxic smoke blanketed the surrounding community for a period of over eight hours. Debate continues as to whether or not government agencies took the steps needed to protect the exposed community during this emergency. Government officials were impeded in their ability to be effective due to organizational issues (lack of funding, poor communication, and an unfriendly political environment) and their inability to link exposures to reported health problems. Residents believed the case was one of environmental racism. This case study explores the factors that played a role in the unsatisfactory outcome of this event, and highlights the impact that citizen involvement had in improving the local emergency response system.

Western State Hospital disaster response, Franklin, Virginia: September/October 1999 GO TEAM narrative report
Susan Tydings Frushour
Summer 2004; pages 43-50

This article describes the efforts of the Western State Hospital (WSH) GO TEAM staff to develop a mental health, disaster response program based on their own Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) team. Four social workers from WSH were deployed to eastern Virginia following significant flooding caused by Hurricane Floyd. Their experiences and the lessons they learned are detailed in this article.

Breaking down barriers: Collaborative education drives collective change
Rose Barg, EdD
Summer 2004; pages 51-55

Journal of Emergency Management
Fall 2004, Volume 2
, Number 4

New WHO health leaders training program gets major grant. FBI falls way behind in Al-Qaida surveillance translations. WCDM 2005 opens call for papers. Senate passes Voinovich Amendment: $56 million in grants available for emergency management. Red Cross study suggests kids could use more disaster training.
Fall 2004; pages 8-11

Conference coverage: 14th World Conference on Disaster Management, Toronto, Canada
David Auger
Fall 2004; pages 13-13

Legal desk
Sources of emergency management law: An overview
William C. Nicholson, JD
Fall 2004; pages 14-15

This article is the first in a series dealing with legal issues in emergency management. It provides an overview of the sources of emergency management law, and, more specifically, addresses the topic of negligence. The upcoming issue of the Journal of Emergency Management will tackle the legal issues associated with immunities.

Perspective on people: Traumatic events and their impact on the individual
Neil Simon, MA
Fall 2004; pages 16-19

Psychological and social characteristics of a terrorist and their application in society and emergency management
Kimberly Stambler, BA, EMT
Fall 2004; pages 20-23

Tornado damage in context: Lessons learned from the May 5, 2002, storm in Happy, Texas
William Monfredo, PhD
Fall 2004; pages 24-28

After a slow start to the 2002 tornado season, a tornado impacted the western and extreme southern sections of Happy, Texas. A damage survey was conducted within 24 hours. This article explores how the context in which a tornado occurs influences how the media portrays the event. Broadcasters covering the Happy, Texas storm included images of what appeared to be total destruction. However, most of the structures performed remarkably well during this fundamentally weak tornado. On the other hand, the complete destruction of a few mobile homes resulted in two deaths and an F2 rating on the Fujita scale. This raises issues concerning tornado intensity forecasts as well as the use of automobiles as shelters for residents of mobile homes located in the path of weak tornadoes.

Disaster mortuary operations: A look at the national disaster medical system response
Vincent B. Holman, Sr., LTC, MS
Fall 2004; pages 29-35

Emergency management: Consequence management decision making
Lisa A. Gibney; Scott E. Hansen; Walter E. Wright, CEM
Fall 2004; pages 36-42

Emergency managers have a dilemma in deciding what to do when there is an emergency that affects their community. Those who have habitual hazards in their community are basically prepared. When a tornado is sighted in “tornado alley,” everyone knows what to do. When a hurricane is coming to shore along the Florida and Texas Gulf Coast, there are basic emergency steps to follow. But in this time of new and more challenging risks, we need a better system to coordinate community emergency decision making, no matter what the hazard. A simple solution is to adopt the four-level emergency event classification system that is already in use with communities with commercial nuclear power plants.

Emergency management and disaster response in Hawaii: The role of medical centers and the media
Ross Prizzia, PhD
Fall 2004; pages 43-49

The research is an administrative case study based on an extensive review of Hawaii government documents and interviews with key personnel of the Hawaii Emergency Preparedness Committee (EPC), civil defense, and other relevant government officials. Interviews with key personnel at the major medical centers were also conducted as well as a survey of 80 percent of the local Hawaii-based TV news reporters. The study describes the interagency coordination at the federal, state, county, and community level to improve capability. Recommendations from the study included increased funding for family emergency preparedness and local community response teams and continuous training by emergency response coordinators to improve state and county disaster preparedness. The study also recommends collaboration with disaster-trained media reporters. The study concluded that, overall, Hawaii is adequately prepared in emergency response capability, particularly in the areas of medical services and interagency coordination, but coordination with the media reporting on disasters could be improved.

Chemical and bioterrorism: An integrated emergency management approach at the undergraduate level
Vaughn E. Wagner, PhD, BCE, ME; Elichia A. Venso, PhD
Fall 2004; pages 50-54

The accredited Environmental Health Science BS degree program at Salisbury University, a member institution of the University System of Maryland, has developed an integrated chemical and bioterrorism course for undergraduate students and emergency management professionals. The one-credit class meets once a week. Course design is adapted from the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) integrated approach to chemical and bioterrorist defensive training strategies. Course objectives are to gain knowledge of specific chemical and biological agents; become familiar with peacetime equivalents and surrogate agents; understand biomedical and environmental factors related to agent exposures; become familiar with integrated response strategies; and gain understanding of government policy issues, agency coordination, and field operations. Student input is based on specific discipline group response and participation in a simulated bioagent release. Discipline groups include public and emergency health, media, critical incident stress analysis, and conflict resolution. Student evaluations of the first course offered in the fall semester of 2002 indicated that the simulated release exercise gave each student an increased awareness of multiagency response necessary to mitigate bioterrorist-initiated events. Evaluation results also suggested the following modifications: include at least one community professional in each discipline group, extend the course to two credits, and schedule the class in late afternoon to accommodate working professionals.

Product news
Fall 2004; pages 55-56

Morovision releases enhanced MV-14 night-vision mini-monocular. Mobile Emergency Datacenter provides full technical capabilities to disaster recovery sites. Self-heating, warm water emergency showers overcome common site problems. PLYLOX provides drill-free, easy-to-apply hurricane window clips. The Communication! Provides high-speed community emergency notification.