American Journal of Recreation TherapyAbstracts
American Journal of Recreation Therapy ®


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American Journal of Recreation Therapy
Winter 2017, Volume 16
, Number 1

Implications from the Broaden-and-Build Theory for recreational therapy
David R. Austin, PhD, FDRT, FALS
Winter 2017; pages 6-7

DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2017.0121

Effect of coloring on student stress levels
April Powell, CTRS, BRLS; Katlyn Alcorn, CTRS, BRLS; Kaitlin Lindsay, BRLS
Winter 2017; pages 9-16

The use of coloring as a form of therapy is relatively new and therefore there is limited research surrounding the topic. This study looked to increase the knowledge base surrounding this topic to better educate those who may find it useful, such as students, educators, or therapists. This study recruited participants aged 18-21 who were full time students at university living away from home. They were asked to complete a self-assessment of their stress levels before and after their participation in a stress induction procedure, as well as after participating in their assigned intervention for 20 minutes. There were three assigned treatments: mandala coloring, traditional coloring, and the control group. This study found statistically significant results supporting the mandala coloring group as an effective intervention for stress reduction. Although only the mandala pattern displayed statistically significant stress reduction, the traditional coloring pattern was able to provide some stress reduction to participants. The control group who sat passively for 20 minutes reported higher stress scores at the end of the study when compared to their initial baseline scores. The findings confirm that coloring is an effective form of therapy when it comes to reducing stress in the university student population. Key words: coloring, stress, mandala, student, coping, meditative, stress reduction DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2017.0122

Pilot outcomes of an online physical activity intervention for individuals with serious mental illnesses
Gretchen Snethen, PhD, CTRS; Gena Bell Vargas, PhD, CTRS
Winter 2017; pages 17-25

Objective: This article describes the development and feasibility of an online physical activity (PA) intervention for individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI), who are at greater risk for obesity and obesity-related diseases than the general population. Individuals with SMI are more likely to lead sedentary lifestyles, which is a modifiable risk factor that has been identified as an intervention area by the National Institutes of Mental Health. Methods: Ten subjects were recruited to participate in a single group, interrupted time series design. Data (weight, body mass index, PA, and quality of life) were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Exit interviews were conducted with participants and the recreational therapist to evaluate perception and feasibility of the intervention. Results: No significant differences were noted on outcome measures. Participants reported high satisfaction with participation and self-reported higher engagement in PA. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: This pilot study demonstrates that an online PA intervention is both feasible and accepted by consumers with SMI and provides diverse roles for recreational therapists working in behavioral health. This study provides valuable feedback for future implementation of an online PA intervention. Recommendations include: incorporate a “readiness to change” screening tool; extend the intervention; incorporate a nutrition component; incorporate opportunities for social interaction; and integrate objective measures of PA and self-monitoring strategies. Key words: physical activity, mental health, tele-health DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2017.0123

Therapeutic alliance and the relationship with motivation for recreational therapy treatment
Melissa L. Zahl, PhD, CTRS,L; Tim Passmore, EdD, CTRS,L, FDRT; Taylor Cudd, MS, CTRS
Winter 2017; pages 26-32

Recreational therapists employ different techniques to facilitate changes in health status and behaviors of patients. One concept which is often overlooked is the potential collaborative process between recreational therapy (RT) and the patient, which is fostered by agreements on treatment goals, consensus on tasks of therapy, and a positive bond between the patient and therapist. RT, in general, appears to be beneficial to advancing a patient to greater wellness; however, patients may still have issues with compliance, dropout, and maintenance of change. To address issues of dropout, compliance, and maintenance, it may be important to investigate motivation for RT. The purpose of this study was to determine if Therapeutic Alliance (TA) was correlated with motivation, as described by Self-Determination Theory, and where possible differences occurred. The results of the study confirm that a correlation exists between TA and motivation, and if a recreational therapist is able to develop and maintain a stronger TA with an individual or patient, intrinsic motivation for participation in RT sessions may exist. The results also indicate that patients reporting weaker TA also have higher amotivation correlation and external regulation. Amotivation and external regulation result in high levels of reported extrinsic motivation toward participation in RT session. Further research is needed to determine if length of time participating in RT treatment impacts the development of TA resulting in changes in reported intrinsic motivation for RT treatment. Key words: extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, Therapeutic Alliance, youth with mental health diagnosis DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2017.0124

Cardio-kickboxing and dynamic balance in adults with developmental disabilities
Tyler Tapps, PhD, CPRP; Alysha A. Walter, MS, CTRS; Mary Tapps, MS, CTRS
Winter 2017; pages 33-38

This study examined the relationship between cardio-kickboxing and balance in individuals with developmental disabilities (DDs). Cardio-kickboxing is a combination of aerobics, boxing, and martial arts. In general, cardio-kickboxing has shown to improve balance in participants. To our knowledge, this is the first adult cardio-kickboxing program for participants with a DD. Twenty-one adults with development disabilities were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group. Participants were tested at baseline, week four, and postintervention using the Four Square Step Test. Improvements were shown in balance (p < 0.0125) at postintervention testing. Results indicate that cardio-kickboxing may be a promising intervention to improve balance for individuals with DDs. Key words: developmental disability, recreational therapy, cardio-kickboxing, balance DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2017.0125

Psychosocial outcomes of participation in adaptive sports for adults with spinal cord injuries: A systematic review of the literature
Brooke Prout, MS, CTRS; Heather R. Porter, PhD, CTRS
Winter 2017; pages 39-47

This systematic review of the literature aims to determine the psychosocial outcomes of participation in adaptive sports for adults with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). The search yielded 68 articles, of which 14 met the inclusion criteria. Findings support the use of adaptive sports by recreational therapists to elicit positive psychosocial outcomes for adults with SCIs, although more research is needed. Recommendations for practice and future research are provided. Key words: adaptive sports, spinal cord injury, psychosocial outcomes DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2017.0126

American Journal of Recreation Therapy
Spring 2017, Volume 16
, Number 2

Advocating for the profession in health care and education industries through interdisciplinary diagnostic credentialing
Kari Kensinger, PhD, CTRS, CAS
Spring 2017; pages 6-7

DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2017.0128

The outcomes of mindfulness-based interventions for adults who have experienced a traumatic brain injury: A systematic review of the literature
Sophia Kenuk, MS, CTRS; Heather R. Porter, PhD, CTRS
Spring 2017; pages 9-19

This literature review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for adults following a traumatic brain injury. A comprehensive literature search yielded 56 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria. Five different MBIs were identified, including mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, mindfulness training, yoga, tai chi, and qigong. A total of 88 outcomes in the areas of cognition, home and community activities, physical functioning, psychosocial functioning, and recovery and general health were measured across the studies, of which 66 of the 88 outcomes found significant, positive, or significant and positive mixed results (75 percent) across all of the studies. Although more research is needed, these findings indicate that MBIs hold promise in improving functioning. Recommendations for recreational therapy practice and future research are provided. Key words: traumatic brain injury, mindfulness-based interventions DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2017.0129

The impact of therapeutic recreation camps on adults with disabilities
Ashlee R. A. Thompson, MS, CTRS; Angela J. Wozencroft, PhD, CTRS; Macie D. Parsons, MS, CTRS
Spring 2017; pages 21-28

Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the perceived benefits that adults with disabilities experience from participating in a therapeutic recreation camp. Methods: Participants selected were between the ages of 22 and 65, had attended the camp one or more times, and had no difficulties communicating. Participant interviews were conducted during the camp and recorded. After interview completion, data were transcribed verbatim and QDA Miner software was used to organize and code the data for themes. Researchers used the constant comparative method of data analysis to form a collaborative code book. Results: Main themes that emerged were: positive affect, confidence, and positive socialization. Participants shared benefits of: feelings of belonging, being accepted without judgment, and establishing an emotional connection with others outside of one's family. Key words: recreation therapy, therapeutic recreation, adults with disabilities, camp, perceived benefits, constant comparative method, positive affect, confidence, positive socialization DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2017.0130

Sensory processing patterns and swim skill acquisition of children with autism spectrum disorder
Lisa Mische Lawson, PhD, CTRS; Megan Mazurowski, OTR,L; Sarah Petersen, OTR,L
Spring 2017; pages 29-40

This descriptive study aimed to understand swim skill acquisition of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) engaged in KU Sensory Enhanced Aquatics. Researchers analyzed Sensory Profiles and documentation of 83 children with ASDs’ first 8-week session. Research questions included identifying what swim skills were acquired over 8 weeks, which sensory supports were used most frequently and how a child's sensory processing pattern impacted swim skill acquisition. Findings showed children with an ASD most frequently acquired swim skills in the Water Orientation, Front Stroke, and Backstroke categories. Goggles were the sensory supports used most frequently. Though there were more similarities than differences between children's sensory patterns and swim skill acquisition, sensory seeking children acquired the most swim skills compared to other patterns. Findings suggest that sensory supports may encourage swim skill acquisition of children with ASDs’ in a variety skill categories. Key words: Autism spectrum disorder, swimming, swim instruction, physical activity, sensory processing patterns DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2017.0131

The therapeutic use of art with women experiencing postpartum mood disorders
Dawn De Vries, DHA, CTRS; Crystal Schaible, CTRS; Kathryn Vincent, CTRS; Stephanie Sheridan, CTRS; Whitney Royston, CTRS; DeAnna Hohn
Spring 2017; pages 41-50

This review article presents an exploration of the therapeutic use of art with women experiencing postpartum mood disorders (PPMD). Existing research is discussed to discover if the therapeutic use of arts is beneficial for women with PPMD and to identify the use of this intervention by recreational therapists. While limited research exists on the therapeutic use of art with women experiencing PPMD specifically, the research on two specific programs for this population demonstrated positive outcomes including a reduction in symptoms, increased self-esteem, improved self-confidence, and enhanced social supports. Guidelines are suggested for the implementation of the therapeutic use of art with women living with PPMD, as well as topics for future study. Key words: postpartum mood disorders, therapeutic use of art, recreational therapy, postpartum depression DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2017.0132

Book review. Management Functions in Recreational Therapy by David R. Austin, Bryan P. McCormick, and Marieke Van Puymbroeck
Mary Ann Keogh Hoss, PhD, CTRS; Missy Armstrong, MS, CTRS/R, FDRT
Spring 2017; pages 51-52

DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2017.0133