American Journal of Recreation TherapyAbstracts
American Journal of Recreation Therapy ®

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Activities Directors' Quarterly for Alzheimer's & Other Dementia Patients

American Journal of Recreation Therapy

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American Journal of Recreation Therapy
Winter 2011, Volume 10
, Number 1


Article
Lessons learned from plunging into Web 2.0 tools
Jo Ann Coco-Ripp, PhD, LRT/CTRS
Winter 2011; pages 5-10

Abstract
Technological influences will bring change to the practice of recreation therapy as well as the way courses are taught. In the present-day focus on the infusion of technology in many aspects of daily life, health and human service providers are incorporating a variety of technology tools into many facets of service provision and training for college students as well as practicing healthcare providers. Training techniques used by instructors in various healthcare fields suggest that improving an individual’s self-confidence in the practice of targeted techniques and increasing self-reflection or self-analysis skills in a classroom can impact actual practice in the healthcare field. As a result of a curriculum review at one university, revisions were made to one course in the therapeutic recreation major, “Procedures in Therapeutic Recreation.” Lessons learned from implementation of these revisions will be shared. Key words: therapeutic recreation, communication, Web 2.0, self-analysis, technology


Article
Teaching Tai Chi to elders with osteoarthritis pain and mild cognitive impairment
Jason Y. Chang, PhD; Pao-Feng Tsai, RN, PhD; Sheery Woods; Cornelia Beck, RN, PhD; Paula K. Roberson, PhD; Karl Rosengren, PhD
Winter 2011; pages 11-16

Abstract
This article describes the authors’ experience and strategies in teaching Tai Chi, a gentle exercise derived from an ancient Chinese martial art, to mildly cognitively impaired elders to relieve osteoarthritic knee pain. The 12-form Sun-style Tai Chi, a set of Tai Chi forms endorsed by the American Arthritis Foundation, was used in the program. Teaching Tai Chi to elders with mild cognitive impairment requires particular strategies tailored to their physical and cognitive frailty. When effectively taught, Tai Chi can be a unique and cost-effective intervention for elders with knee pain caused by osteoarthritis. Key words: cognitive impairment, osteoarthritis, Tai Chi, teaching strategy


Article
A strengths-based approach to play in children with autism
Rachel L. Smith, MS; Marieke Van Puymbroeck, PhD, CTRS
Winter 2011; pages 17-24

Abstract
Children with autism often experience difficulties with play. The focus of previous research has described how the play of children with autism is deviant from the play of typically developing peers. There has been little attention paid to understanding why children with autism play the way they do, and the innate strengths that exist within the play experience of children with autism. The purpose of this theoretical piece is to provide a framework for exploring the play of children with autism from a strengths-based recovery model perspective. Implications for recreational therapists and other professionals are discussed, and considerations for future research directions are suggested. Key words: play, autism, autism spectrum disorders, positive psychology, leisure behavior, strength-based approach, recreational therapy


Article
Independence through Community Access and Navigation in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders Part 1: Theoretical and practical foundations
Gretchen Snethen, PhD, LRT/CTRS; Bryan P. McCormick, PhD, CTRS; Marieke Van Puymbroeck, PhD, CTRS
Winter 2011; pages 25-33

Abstract
Negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction are two symptomatic categories of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) that significantly impair functioning. Treatment for adults with SSDs continues to focus primarily on medication adherence and positive symptom reduction, despite the fact that medication has little impact on negative and cognitive symptoms within this population and, thus, little impact on improving community functioning. This two-part series presents an intervention developed to increase community participation in adults with SSDs. This article presents a comprehensive description of the functional impairments experienced by this population, framed within the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. This article will also apply Self-Determination Theory to this population of adults with SSDs as a foundation to help this population increase community participation and successful integration. Key words: schizophrenia, community, self-determination, negative symptoms, functioning, recovery, recreational therapy


Article
Independence through Community Access and Navigation in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders Part 2: Treatment planning and implementation
Gretchen Snethen, PhD, LRT/CTRS; Bryan P. McCormick, PhD, CTRS; Rachel L. Smith, MS; Marieke Van Puymbroeck, PhD, CTRS
Winter 2011; pages 35-45

Abstract
Social isolation and nonparticipation in the community are chronic issues for adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders that can lead to poorer health outcomes. The Independence through Community Access and Navigation (I-CAN) intervention was developed as a theoretically grounded intervention that uses motivational interviewing to understand the interests and motivations of clients for participation. The intervention is designed to support participation in community-based activities by providing access and skill acquisition in a community environment. Participation between the recreational therapist and the participant decreases over time to encourage the individual to begin to independently access his or her community. This article presents the treatment planning steps and the implementation protocol for the I-CAN intervention. Key words: schizophrenia, community participation, self-determination, intervention, recovery, recreational therapy

American Journal of Recreation Therapy
Spring 2011, Volume 10
, Number 2


Article
Guest editorial. Recreation therapy scholarship: A necessary contribution to the future of recreation therapy
David R. Austin, PhD; Bryan P. McCormick, PhD, CTRS
Spring 2011; pages 5-6


Article
Perceived leisure satisfaction of participants in the Arthritis Foundation Aquatic Program
Anna Zych, MSEd; Heewon Yang, PhD, CTRS; Marjorie J. Malkin, EdD, CTRS
Spring 2011; pages 9-16

Abstract
Arthritis is the second most commonly reported chronic condition and the leading cause of disability among older adults in the United States. Previous studies of aquatic-based interventions for arthritis have focused on physical benefits. In this study, some psychosocial benefits as well as physiological benefits are examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived leisure satisfaction of participants who were involved in the Arthritis Foundation Aquatic Program in order to determine some factors that might be associated with persistence of participation in this program. Forty-nine subjects participated in the six-week program and completed the Leisure Satisfaction Measure (LSM) both at the beginning and at the end of the six weeks. There was no significant difference found for the overall scores of the LSM. However, there were significant mean differences at the 0.05 level found for three of the subscales on the LSM (ie, psychological, relaxation, and physiological), indicating that participating in the six-week aquatic exercise program increased the participants’ perceived leisure satisfaction levels in those three areas. Key words: aquatic therapy, arthritis, Arthritis Foundation Aquatic Program, leisure satisfaction


Article
Benefits of therapeutic horseback riding for an adolescent female with traumatic brain injury
Marjorie J. Malkin, EdD, CTRS; Leslie Freels Lloyd, RhD; Deirdre Gerstenberger, MS
Spring 2011; pages 17-28

Abstract
After completion of a recreational therapy assessment, a treatment plan based on a oneyear therapeutic horseback riding program was designed and implemented to address the needs of a 13-year-old adolescent female who had sustained a traumatic brain injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if therapeutic horseback riding could improve selected deficits in the adolescent female. Benefits were observed in the areas of increased attention and memory, following directions, sequencing, and horseback riding skills. All gains cannot be solely attributed to the therapeutic horseback riding program but may be part of the cumulative effect of concurrent treatment modalities. Key words: therapeutic horseback riding, traumatic brain injury, therapeutic recreation


Article
A review of innovative apps for students with communication needs
Lauren A. Menard, EdD
Spring 2011; pages 29-37

Abstract
Recent advancements in technology have expanded the customizability, portability, convenience, and availability of augmentative and alternative communication devices. Convergence of systems and federal funding commitment offer an opportunity to redefine assistive technology for those with special needs. All-in-one communication applications (apps) offer service providers powerful tools for addressing the normalization principle and best practices of accessibility, generalization across environments, and meaningful participation. The visual communication systems that once encompassed wall panels or rolling carts now fit in a pocket. However, a gap exists between development of new, award-winning apps and implementation—a gap widened by lack of awareness. In this review, a brief description of traditional visual communication strategies (ie, Picture Exchange Communication System and Boardmaker) is given and two innovative communication apps (ie, Proloquo2Go and Grace) are described. The themes of cost, the cool factor, and accessibility are discussed. The goal of this review is to increase awareness and to encourage discussions leading to quality therapeutic and instructional models using the new, innovative devices. Key words: augmentative communication, assistive technology, special education


Article
An exploratory study on the effects of Nintendo Wii® Fit Balance Board on balance retraining and body mass index of adolescents with a traumatic brain injury
Jessica K. Conyers, MS, CTRS; Marjorie J. Malkin, EdD, CTRS; Heewon Yang, PhD, CTRS
Spring 2011; pages 38-48

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Board® on balance of two adolescent females with a traumatic brain injury and on their body mass index (BMI). The participants attended a balance retraining program, with three sessions a week for 30 minutes for four consecutive weeks. The balance of the participants was measured both by recording raw game scores on the Nintendo Wii Fit games each session and by the use of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), which was administered pretest and post-test. The BMI was also determined by using the Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Board. Both participants showed improved balance game scores during the Wii Fit sessions. However, for both participants, there were no significant differences on the BBS and on their BMI. Key words: balance training, body mass index, brain injury, Wii Fit®


Article
Book review Lessons Learned: An Open Letter to Recreational Therapy Students and Practitioners by David R. Austin, PhD
Victoria Dawn Shelar, PhD, CTRS
Spring 2011; pages 49-50

American Journal of Recreation Therapy
Fall 2011, Volume 10
, Number 4


Article
Editorial Take a look at our new editorial board and new priorities!
Linda L. Buettner, PhD, LRT, CTRS
Fall 2011; pages 7-8

Abstract
DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2011.0005


Article
The effects of student home visits on activity engagement in persons with Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders
Barbara A. Braddock, PhD; Ellen Phipps, CTRS
Fall 2011; pages 9-16

Abstract
Purpose: To examine the effects of activity setup and student home visits on level of engagement in participants with Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders (ADRD) and on caregivers’ stress and confidence. Method: Participants in the Intervention group (N = 16) were matched to those in the Comparison group (N = 16). Participants and caregivers in the Intervention group received intervention over 8 weeks, whereas the Comparison group received activity selection and setup only. Results: Activity setup and cognitive aids promoted high levels of physical and verbal engagement in both groups. Persons with relatively less cognitive impairment were significantly more likely to engage in activity with adaptation and setup only. Compared with caregivers who did not receive student visits, caregivers with student support reported significant reductions in burden. Conclusions: Activity setup and student home visits may be most beneficial to the caregiver to reduce stress while sustaining home activity for the individual with ADRD. Key words: Alzheimer’s disease, caregiver stress, engagement, partnered volunteering, dementia, activity engagement DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2011.0006


Article
Healthy People 2020: Implications for recreation therapy
Heewon Yang, PhD, CTRS; Dongsu An, PhD
Fall 2011; pages 17-23

Abstract
For the past 30 years, Healthy People (HP), a comprehensive set of 10-year national public health objectives, has been used by the public health and allied healthcare communities to guide health planning for the American people. In December 2010, HP 2020 publicized new 10-year goals and objectives for improving the nation’s health, and topic areas of HP 2020 were upsized from 29 to 42 focus areas. The purpose of this article is to provide recreation professionals with information relevant to the profession from HP 2020, to be able to participate in the nation’s health project. Specifically, this article first introduces vision and mission statement, goals and objectives, and other necessary information of the updated HP 2020. Finally, practical approaches on how to effectively use this national health guideline for the recreation therapy (RT) profession are discussed, as well as how the RT profession can proactively contribute to the successful implementation of HP 2020. Key words: Healthy People 2020, MAPIET model, recreation therapy, social determinants of health DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2011.0007


Article
Perceived benefits of animal-assisted therapy in the oncology waiting room
Linda L. Buettner, PhD, LRT, CTRS; YingChen Wang, PhD; Kaitlin Stevens; Hannah Jessup; Gustav C. Magrinat, MD
Fall 2011; pages 25-34

Abstract
This study identified perceived benefits of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) on anxiety, pain, communication, and cognition among patients waiting for treatment in a large urban cancer center. A convenience sample of 75 patients and five family members (n = 80) waiting for treatment completed a survey about AAT. After giving informed consent, participants were asked to complete questions related to attitudes about offering a complementary therapy dog program in the hospital. Findings indicated that most respondents were very accepting of AAT in the cancer center, with 78 percent indicating that they would like to take part in this complementary therapy. The perceived benefits of AAT included that it would provide a method for positive communication (93 percent), cognitive stimulation (92.3 percent), it would help to pass time more quickly (88.8 percent), it would help people to feel more comfortable at the cancer center (84.8 percent), and it would reduce participants’ pain (71.3 percent) and anxiety (68.4 percent). The association between gender and anxiety produced a statistically meaningful result in this study about predicting subjects’ participation in the program. Ultimately, offering recreational therapy facilitated AAT in cancer center waiting areas may provide benefits for patients and provide a competitive edge to hospitals. Key words: animal-assisted therapy, cancer, benefits DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2011.0008


Article
Including children with autism spectrum disorders in recreation activities
Rachel L. Smith, MS; Marieke Van Puymbroeck, PhD, CTRS
Fall 2011; pages 35-42

Abstract
Children with autism often have difficulty being socially integrated in recreation settings. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of the Active Participation and Social Integration (APASI) model as a tool for recreational therapists to use to increase active participation in recreation activities for children with autism. Using an exploratory single subject design, researchers explored if the APASI approach increased on-task behavior in three children with autism while participating in an integrated recreation activity. On-task behavior increased in this population. Implications for recreational therapy research and practice are discussed. Key words: social integration, autism, recreation, recreational therapy DOI: 10.5055/ajrt.2011.0009